BILD 3: Final - Ecology p.1

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BILD 3: Final - Ecology p.1
2013-12-09 17:22:29
BILD UCSD organismic evolutionary biology
BILD UCSD organismic evolutionary biology
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  1. Order of Types of Ecology (Ascending order)
    • Organismal
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Landscape
    • Global

    • Mnemonic:
    • Only Purple Colors Echo Love of Gays
  2. Organismal Ecology
    • 1 SPECIES!
    • How INDIVIDUALS interact w/ea other & their environment

    ex. M & F salmon fight over females during breeding session
  3. Population Ecology
    • 1 SPECIES!
    • MULTIPLE ORGANISMS w/in species
    • How & why population size & composition changes over time

    ex.Female salmon producing thousands of eggs, few will survive to adulthood, on avg only 2 return to stream of their birth to breed
  4. Community Ecology
    • INTER-SPECIES interactions
    • How do species interact, what are the consequences?

    • ex. Salmon are PREDATOR & PREY
    • ex. Parasite & host
  5. Ecosystem Ecology
    • Incorporates the abiotic environment
    • How do energy & nutrients cycle through the environment?

    • ex. When salmon die & decompose, nutrients that are released are used by bacteria, archaea, plants, portists, young salmon, & other organisms
    • ex. Forest or Lake
  6. Landscape Ecology
    • Arrays of ecosystems, how they are arranged in a geographic location

    ex. How a forest & nearby lake are connected
  7. Global Ecology
    • BIOSPHERE is the global ecosystem
    • Examines the influence of energy & materials on organisms across whole biosphere

    ex. Ocean currents & climate --> CLIMATE CHANGE!
  8. Biomes
    (Definition + 2 Types)
    • Greater than Ecosystems..they are general associations of type of area.
    • 2 Main Types:
    • - Aquatic
    • - Terrestrial

    ex. A desert..they look the same no matter what area.
  9. Aquatic Biomes
    • Largest part of biosphere in terms of area
    • Fresh or salt water (marine)
    • Oceans 75% of Earth's surface. Taking up lots of CO2, but that makes them acidic.
  10. 2 things determine Aquatic Biome limits:
    (determines WHO lives WHERE)
    • 1. Sunlight
    • 2. Nutrients
  11. Ephemeral bodies of water
    Ponds that are dry & can come back (means "lasting for a very short time")
  12. Bodies of freshwater are: (3)
    • Lakes (Big)
    • Ponds (Small, ephemeral)
    • Wetlands (Shallow)
  13. 3 Types of Wetlands:
    • 1. Marshes. (Have non-woody plants like grasses

    • 2. Swamps. (Have trees & shrubs)

    • 3. Bogs. (Have methane, are stagnant & acidic. Not much diversity, see carniverous plants. ex. Great Lakes region)
  14. Different levels of streams/rivers
    • -Up high in mountain -> Water airated -> Water is fast, cold, HIGH in O2, LOW in nutrients (Not much life/diversity)
    • - In middle -> Water slow, warms -> GAINS nutrients, LOSES O2
    • - Low, near mouth -> Water is slow, warm -> HIGH in nutrients, LOW in O2
  15. Estuaries
    • Lots of greenery & life
    • Nutrients
    • Food attracts lots of marine life
  16. Marine Environments
    (2 Coastal, 2 Open-water)
    • Coastal:
    • 1. Coral reef
    • 2. Intertidal zone
    • Open Water:
    • 1. Pelagic zone
    • 2. Abyssal/Benthic zone
  17. Intertidal Zone
    (Aquatic Biome)
    • Coastal.
    • Where Upwelling happens. Brings up nutrients, provides food for intertidal zone that have been trapped in oceanic floor. Organisms latch onto rock & substrate, water washes over & they filter plankton & foods
  18. Coral Reefs
    (Aquatic Biome)
    • Coastal.
    • Off coasts in warm, shallow water. They are formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals (polyps cover shell, in phylum Cnidaria). Require a solid substrate for attachment. Unicellular algae live w/in tissues, mutualism. Undergo photosynthesis.
    • (Red Sea BEST coral reefs)
  19. Oceanic Pelagic Zone
    (Aquatic Biome)
    • Open Water.
    • Largest. Open water constantly mixed by wind-driven ocean currents. Covers ~70% earth's surface. Phytoplankton & Zooplankton dominant here, & free-swimming animals
  20. Marine Benthic Zone
    (Aquatic Biome)
    • Open Water.
    • "Bottom" Ocean floor. 2 Types:
    • Neritic= Shallow. Intertidal zones, coral reefs. Abyssal zone= Deep. Organisms adapted to COLD & EXTREME. Get nutrients that fall to the bottom.
    • 2 Plates: Oceanic ~ 5 m thick, then drop to Continetnal plates ~ 20-30 m thick
  21. Terrestrial biomes are controlled by ___________
  22. Explain availability of nutrients in Aquatic vs Terrestrial biomes..
    • Aquatic (Ocean)
    • Who lives where is dependent on sunlight & availability of resources so there are LIMITS.
    • Terrestrial (Land)
    • NO LIMITS b/c nutrients & sun are rich. Nutrients die they are close to the surface & easily available to everything else. BUT variability in different climates make it harder to adapt & survive in different areas.
  23. List the 8 Main Terrestrial Biomes:
    • 1. Tropical Forest (Rainforest & dry)
    • 2. Desert
    • 3. Savanna
    • 4. Chaparral
    • 5. Temperate Grasslands
    • 6. Temperate Broadleaf Forest
    • 7. Northern Coniferous Forest
    • 8. Tundra
  24. Desert
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • Around 30th Parallels
    • Percipitation: Low. Rains all at once. <30cm/yr
    • Plants: Adapted for heat, water storage, small surface area
    • Animals: Snakes, lizards, scorpions, ants, beetles, seed-eating rodents, migrant birds
    • Some only extremophile organisms like the McMurdo Dry Valleys)
  25. Why are deserts so dry at 30th latitude lines
    • Hadley Cells/ Vertical & Latitudinal Stratification
    • Equator gets more units of energy b/c light is straight on
    • Warmer at equator, air expands -> Hadley cells. If you have hot hair, will expand, low pressure zone. Expands -> Moves up, weighs less. Rises. (As air rises it cools, which holds less water vapor. In tropics, it rises and dumps all it's water).
    • If goes up, it has to come down. Happens around 30th parallel where the deserts are found. High pressure. Dry air which is cool, but warms as it descends.

    • So tend to see similar biomes along latitude stratification
  26. Tropical Forest
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • Located along equator line. 0o
    • Tropical Rainforest:
    • VERTICALLY LAYERED. CONSTANT rain. (Hadley cells, hot air rising, etc)
    • Competition for light INTENSE
    • BAD SOIL
    • Dry forest:
    • Precipitation is seasonal (NOT constant)
  27. Endemic (definition)
    (Plant or animal) native or restricted to a certain country or area.

    ex. Madagascar (Tropical Forest) Separated about 80 million y.a. so most species there are endemic; you don't see them anywhere else.
  28. Savanna
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • Precipitation & Temp are Seasonal
    • Grasses mostly
    • Insects & mammals: Wildebeests, zebras, lions, hyenas
    • Characterized by MASSIVE MIGRATIONS..see "mega-predators" which humans can easily wipe out. Termite mounds 20-30ft high!
    • Transitional zone between forest and desert or grassland. 20% of the Earth's land area.
  29. Chaparral
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • aka "Meditteranian Climate"
    • Highly seasonal, cool rainy winters, hot dry summers
    • Plants: shrubs, small trees, grasses, herbs. Plants adapted to fire/drought.
    • Animals: amphibians, birds, reptiles, insects, small mammals, browsing mammals
    • Top predators: Coyotes
  30. What is the name of the Biome here in San Diego?
    • Coastal Sage Scrub.
    • ~1,000 ft.
    • It is within the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Biome.
  31. Temperate Grassland
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • ex. MIDWEST U.S.
    • Found on many continents
    • Winters cold & dry, summers wet & hot
    • Plants: Grasses, forbs, adapted to droughts & fire -> Natural & beneficial
    • Animals: Large grazer mammals, small burrowers
  32. Temperate Broad Leaf Forest
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • ex. East Coast U.S.
    • Winters cold, summers hot & humid. HIGH precipitation year round w/rain & snow
    • Plants: Dominated by DECIDUOUS TREES in N.Hemisphere, evergreen eucalyptus in Aus. Mature temperate broadleaf forest w/vertical layers. Changing colors, cold, icy winters.
  33. Northern Coniferous Forest "Taiga"
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • Boreal Forest
    • (b/c at latitude, the most land present)
    • extends across N.America & Eurasia
    • Winters cold & long, summers hot & short
  34. Key difference between TUNDRA & TAIGA:
    • Appearance of VEGETATION..
    • B/c of PERMAFROST, roots cannot penetrate deep. Everything is shallow depth, no trees, everything low to ground.
  35. Tundra
    (Terrestrial Biome)
    • Covers Arctic
    • Winters long & cold, summers cool. Precipitation varies.
    • Permafrost prevents water infiltration.
    • Plants: Herbaceous (mosses, grasses, dwarf shrubs, trees & lichen)
    • Animals: Birds, grazers, predators
    • Ice melts & end up w/wet, marshy lands. Permafrost holds carbon, melts, releases CO2, causes more heat..(+) Feedback Loop (warming)
  36. Population Ecology
    • Study of DEMOGRAPHICS..
    • HOW & WHY the # of individuals in population changes over time.
    • ex. Census for humans. CORE of conservation b/c we can see causes of decline.
  37. 2 Measurements of Population Structure:
    • 1. Density (# individuals per unit area or volume)
    • 2. Dispersion (Pattern of spacing)
  38. 3 Methods for measuring population density:
    • 1. Count
    • ex. Trees
    • 2. Transect. (Measure amount in a certain space then multiply by # of spaces to get estimate)
    • ex. Flowers
    • 3. Mark & Recapture.
    • - Capture & Mark 10, then release
    • - Later, capture 10, one marked.
    • - Population estimate = 100
    • ex. Birds
  39. Mark & Recapture Formula:
    N= # Marked Ind/% Marked upon Recapture

    • ex. Marked 10, Recaptured 10 & 1 was marked:
    • 10/.10 = 100

    • ex. Marked 30, Recaptured 30 & 5 were marked:
    • 30/.60 = 50

    • ex. Marked 200, Recaptured 200 & 4 were marked:
    • 200/.02 = 10,000
  40. What are the 3 Patterns of Dispersion?
    • 1. Random
    • 2. Uniform
    • 3. Clumped
  41. Clumped Dispersion:
    • Clumped resource availability
    • Social grouping

    • ex. Lions pride or wolves
    • ex. flies on carcas or area of specialization like apple tree
  42. Uniform Dispersion:
    • Even distribution
    • Social interactions:
    • - Territoriality
    • - Resource depletion
    • Too much space=Hard to defend
    • Too little space=Lack of resources

    • ex. Penguins need space to incubate eggs
    • ex. Desert bushes due to water limits
  43. Random Dispersion:
    • Position of individuals independent of ea.other

    • ex. Flowers in field, seeds dispersed, plenty of resources so doesn't matter where it lands
  44. Human dispersion patterns:
    (& analogous pattern)

    • Neighborhood= Uniform (suburbs)
    • State= Clumped (in large city/metro areas)
    • Country/Global= Random

    • ex. Flies in Apple Trees;
    • Orchard= Clumped (on trees)
    • One Tree= Uniform (on plants)
  45. Demography
    • Change in population numbers
    • (Study of vital statistics of a population)
    • Death & Birth rates
  46. Fecundity
    Reproductive potential/ average of babies someone can have in a POPULATION. (The # of offspring produced by each female in a POPULATION)

    • ex Humans= 2:1 (2 parents - 1 child)
    • If had 2 children, would be replacement
  47. Age-specific Fecundity
    • Average # of female offspring produced by a female in a given age class- a group of individuals of a SPECIFIC AGE.
    • Pre- REPRODUCTIVE- Post

    ex. Humans ~14yo to 40yo
  48. Survivorship
    The proportion (%) of offspring produced that survive to a particular age (% of surviving offspring of individuals in a population)
  49. Life table
    • Age-Specific summary of survival pattern of a population.
    • Follows cohort= a cohort is a group of subjects who have shared a particular event together during a particular time span (follows who was born at same time)
  50. 3 General types of Survivorship Curves:
    • 1. Type I - High Survivorship
    • Most offspring survive, live long
    • ex. Humans, large mammals
    • 2. Type II - Steady Survivorship
    • Equal rate of death from being hunted (and dying) throughout lifetime
    • ex. Birds
    • 3. Type III - Low Survivorship
    • Most don't survive in beginning, then live long
    • ex. Plants
  51. Why not high fecundity AND survivorship?
    • = ENERGY!!
    • There is an energy trade-off.
    • High fecundity = Low survivorship
    • ex. Seahorses
    • Low fecundity = High survivorship
    • ex. Humans
    • -- We have very much fewer offspring b/c takes a great amount of energy to keep ours alive so greater chance of survival.

  52. Life History
    (& 3 types of reproductive Qs)
    • How organism uses resources to:
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Activities related to survival

    • Qs:
    • - What age does reproduction begin?
    • - How often the organism reproduces?
    • - How many offspring produced during ea cycle?
  53. Life history traits are ______________________________________
    Adapted traits that tend to overall maximize fitness
  54. Semelparity
    • "Big Bang" Reproduction
    • Produce many offspring once, then die

    ex. Agave plant, Century plant, salmon. Reproductive event 1X, MASSIVE reproduction. Low probability of survival to reproduce again.
  55. Iteroparity
    • Itero = Iteration (doing something over & over)
    • Repeated reproduction. Produce fewer that survive, so do it repeatedly over lifetime

    ex. Humans
  56. Factors that favor:

    • Semelparity: Low propability of surviving to reproduce again (Harsh environments; desert agaves, annual plants)
    • Pos relationship b/w reproductive effort & reproductive success per unit effort

    Iteroparity: High adult survival. Reduced offspring success as # of offspring per reproductive episode increases
  57. Population size changes 4 ways (2+ 2-)
    • + Birth
    • + Immigration
    • - Death
    • - Emigration
  58. Change in Population Size/Change in time
    = B-D+I-E
  59. 2 Types of Growth in Population:
    • 1. Exponential Growth
    • 2. Logistic Growth
  60. Exponential Growth & Equation
    • = "J-Curve"  = dN/dt = rN
    • Grows at CONSTANT rate, regardless of pop size
    • r= proportional growth rate of pop (%)

    • ex. If r = 200% growth/yr & N=100, what is the population size after:
    • 1 year= 2(100) = 200
    • 2 years= 2(200) = 400
    • 3 years= 2(400) = 800
    • 4 years= 2(800) = 1600
  61. Can exponential growth be sustained for long in a population?
    a. Yes
    b. No
    b. No
  62. Exponential Growth (of J-Curve) is dictated by the value of _____
    • r (% growth rate)
  63. Realistic growth models we see in real life are:
    a. Exponential Growth
    b. Logistic Growth
    b. Logistic Growth
  64. Logistic Growth & Equation:
    = "S-Curve"  = rN(K-N)/K or rN(1-N/K)

    • K= Carrying Capacity. Max pop size environment can support due to limits on resources
    • The closer N & K are to each other, the closer they are to 1, so the Lower growth is (1-1=0)
    • N SMALL= Away from K= Exponential growth
    • N LARGE= Close to K= Logistic
  65. When climbing a mountain, we can observe transitions in biological communities that are analogous to the changes:

    A. in biomes at different latitudes
    B. in an ecosystem as it evolves over time
    C. across the US from east to west
    D. in a community through different seasons
    E. in different depths of the ocean
    A. in biomes at different latitudes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. If the direction of Earth's rotation reversed, the most predictable effect would be:

    A. no more night  day
    B. a loss of seasonal variation at high latitudes
    C. a big change in the length of the year
    D. the elimination of ocean currents
    E. winds blowing from west to east along the equator
    E. winds blowing from west to east along the equator
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. In an environment where Sea Otters -> eat Sea Urchins eat -> Kelp, there is a positive correlation b/w % of kelp & # of otters. How can this be explained?
    The otters eat the sea urchins, decreasing their population, which makes the population of the kelp increase.
  68. 2 Main limits of Growth rate & Population size:
    • 1. Density-independent factors
    • ex. Natural disasters/storms, etc

    • 2. Density-dependent factors
    • Effects on survivorship & fecundity depending on population size
    • (more dense, higher the effects on survivorship)
  69. 4 Types of Density-Dependent population regulations:
    • 1. Intraspecific competition for resources
    • (WITHIN-species. Fight for food)

    • 2. Territoriality (for space)
    • ex. cheetahs highly territorial, use chemical communication
    • ex. Lek- Uses small breeding space for optimal sexual selection

    • 3. Density-Dependent disease spread
    • ex. TB spread fast in dense areas. More dense, faster disease spread.

    • 4. Alee effect (If population TOO SMALL can also have consequences)
    • = positive correlation between population size or density and the mean individual fitness.
    • ex. mountain lions in SoCal. Social groups but finding mates here is rare
  70. Biological Community (definition)
    Multiple populations of different species living close enough for interaction. Usually contained within homogenous habitat.
  71. Interspecific Interactions & effects
    • Links b/w populations.
    • Effects on fitness b/w 2 species.
    • (+) Positive
    • (-) Negative
    • (0) Neutral
  72. The boundary for a community can usually be found at a(n) __________________.
  73. Interspecific Interaction: (- / -)
    • = Competition
    • Species compete for resources
  74. 2 Types of Competition:
    1. Interference competition = Direct interaction (fighting)

    • 2. Exploitative competition = Indirect interaction (depleting resources)
    • ex. Ants quickly bring resources back before others find them

    ex. Money on the ground everyone sees at once & fights over is Inerference, but if one person sees the money first and hides it from others, that is Exploitative.
  75. The Competitive Exclusion Principle:
    • 2 species competing for same limiting resources cannot coexist in same place. Under assumption that 1 will be a better competitor. Depends on 2 things:
    • - Which resources do they require
    • - If those needs overlap

  76. Ecological Niche
    The "job" of a species & includes all the biotic & abiotic resources necessary for survival: Food, shelter, climate conditions, etc.

    • G.E. Hutchinson developed idea

    • Area in circle is + fitness
    • Area outside circle is 0 fitness
  77. Fundamental Niche vs. Realized Niche
    Fundatmental: Full range of biological & physical conditions an organism can potentially exist in

    Realized: Range of conditions an organism ACTUALLY lives in; smaller than fundamental b/c of competition for resources
  78. 2 Reasons Realized Niche is smaller than Fundamental Niche:
    • 1. Conditions don't actually exist in the real world
    • 2. Competition for limiting resources.

    • *If 2 populations w/ SAME niche fighting for SAME resources, the superior will eliminate so there's no overlap
  79. Species with similar Niche to environment can coexist through 2 ways of Niche Differentiation:
    • 1. Resource partitioning (Behavioral)
    • 2. Character displacement (Physical)
  80. Resource Partitioning
    Behavioral differentiation of niches that enable similar species to coexist in a community

    • ex. Lizards specialize in different micro-habitats
  81. Character Displacement
    Physical differentiation of niches; characteristics more divergent b/w sympatric competitors than allopatric populations of same 2 species

    ex. Darwin's finches
  82. Explain how Darwin's finches beak depths look on 2 different island vs the same island
    • Los Hermanos & Daphne islands, their beak sizes overlap b/c there is no competition.
    • *Allopatric*

    • However on Santa Maria, San Cristobal, they have separated to different sizes. Competition. NO OVERLAP. *Sympatric*
  83. Allopatric vs Sympatric Speciation
    • Sympatric speciation occurs when populations of a species that share the
    • same habitat become reproductively isolated from each other

    • Allopatric speciation, the most common form of speciation, occurs when
    • populations of a species become geographically isolated
  84. Interspecific Interaction: (+/-)
    • Predation
    • Predator-Prey

    ex. the Trap-Jaw Ant. Australia. Jaws FASTEST motion in animal kingdom (like mantis shrimp punch) 78-145 mph
  85. 3 ways prey defend themselves:
    • 1. Camouflage (Allows them to lose their EDGE & blend in)
    • ex. Cuttlefish
    • 2. Schooling (dilution effect, safety in #s, social benefits w/many eyes to look out)
    • ex. Tuna
    • 3. Weaponry (fighting back)
    • ex. Porcupine vs lion

  86. Interspecific Interaction: (+/-)
    • Herbivory
    • Herbivore eats parts of plant ar alga
    • Led to evolution of plant mechanical & chemical defenses & adaptations by herbivores
  87. Plant defenses- Mechanical
    • Make it physically hard to eat the plant
    • ex:
    • - Rose stem
    • - Ocotillo spines
    • - Trichomes- sticky hairs
  88. Plant defenses- Chemical
    • Poisonous/ plant toxins
    • ex.
    • - Caffeine
    • - Nicotene
    • - Datura= Same family as sage. Grows in SD. Hallucinations; completely dissociative. Could kill you.
  89. Interspecific Interaction: (+/-)
    • Parisitism.
    • Parasite: Derives nourishment from host- harms it in process
    • Parasitoid: Parasite which KILLS host in process
  90. Parasitoid
    • Parasite which KILLS host in process
    • ex. Primitive wasps
    • Lay eggs inside cateppilar, larvae, keeps host alive while feeding on it
    • from inside. Release chemicals that paralize it while they eat way out.
    • Then catepillar spins silk onto cocoon, protects it, & starves to
    • death.
  91. Interspecific Interaction: (+/+)
    • Mutualism
    • Benefits BOTH species

    • ex. Ant/Acacia
    • Ant protects plant from vines that grow on it, & other bugs. The plant gives the ant food & shelter w/nectar  brown pods for larvae.
  92. Obligatory Relationship
    Mutualism where if you remove one, the other dies
  93. Interspecific Interaction: (+/0)
    • Commensalism
    • One species benefits, the other is unaffected

    • ex. Epiphytes
    • ex. Army ants & birds.
    • S. Africa, Army Ants good @ killing everything & flush out prey. Birds wait until they are done & get their leftovers. Doesn't affect the ants.