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Nunavut has the highest ????? rate in Canada?
How large is the territory of Nunavut? How large is the population?
- 2 000 000 sq. km.
- Pop. of 25 000
When did Nunavut join Canada?
April 1st 1999
Translation for "Iqaluit"
"Place of Fish"
Translation for Inuit.
Father of Nunavut, sat on the Implementation Committee.
Language of Nunavut.
First elected Premier of Nunavut.
Definition of Nunavut.
What was given to the victims of residential schools?
- In 2005, they set aside $2 billion for compensation
- ~80 000~ survivors
- $10 000 for each student plus $3000/year at school (up to $25 000)
- Plus, if abused, extra money up to $275 000
What is the purpose of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission?
- To study residential school system and report on the history (a museum)
- commemorating its victims
- able to share stories--OK to talk about it
- educate Canadians
How did Aboriginal Canadians respond to the government's apology about the residential schools?
They accepted it and celebrated, day of hope, new beginning, proud moment, can move on.
Why were residential school students ashamed of their heritage?
Because they didn't feel like they belonged anywhere. They were made to think that their culture was inferior.
What effect did residential schools have on Aboriginal culture?
- They didn't feel like they belonged anywhere. Couldn't connect. They were ashamed. Kids of people who went to residential schools were abused b/c they had no parental experience. Deprived of caring. Strangers in they home culture.
- Added to mental stress, drugs, alcohol, couldn't connect with emotions.
How did children react to being separated from their families?
- Many of them couldn't understand why they were being separated and would cry. Students wake up with 100s of strangers all the same age. Confused, scared, suddenly couldn't speak their own language and forced to speak English, strapped, tongue pinched.
- A girl died and the parents were informed.
Why were kids separated from their families when going to Residential Schools?
To assimilate them faster. Keep them as far away as possible from their culture. Believed that their culture was inferior.
How many people attended residential schools over the course of their history?
150 000 from the 1870s-1970s
Why did Prime Minister Harper apologize to Aboriginal Canadians in the summer of 2008?
- The absence of the apology had impeded healing and reconciliation.
- Government was giving recognition of their part in it.
Why were Aboriginal kids sent to Residential Schools?
- They were forced to go so that they could become part of the larger population (English language) (assimilation) and get jobs in cities and return (southern knowledge) to parents--educate people.
- "Kill the Indian in the child". They'd be Christian and would be turned into labourers and domestic help.
What are the complaints about Residential Schools?
- kids were taken away from homes (scooping)
- could not speak native tongue
- addressed as "numbers", not their names (tattooed after)
- beaten (severely)
- sexual abuse
- can't practice their religion
- not enough food to eat
- couldn't practice their spirituality
- told how to dress
- loss of culture (art ripped up)
Who ran residential schools?
Anglican, United and Roman Catholic churches.
What have the children of Davis Inlet lost?
*~ SO DEEP ~*
How much was the move to Natuashish?
Why do the children at Davis Inlet sniff gas?
Boredom, neglect, peer-pressure
What was wrong with the new community called Natuashish?
It was too spread out for them.
Where is Davis Inlet?
on an island, 15km off the east coast of Labrador
What are some of the solutions that were used to solve the problems in Davis Inlet?
- take kids and parents to hunting camps to live off the land.
- fly kids and parents out to Alberta Pound Lodge.
- Brought in social workers (local help)
- Make a "dry community" - no alcohol allowed inside.
- Recreation centres offering activities to keep kids busy. e.g. basketball, swimming.
- Have a help centre in their own local community (rather than fly out)
- Give better housing
What are social problems that were in Davis Inlet?
- substance abuse: gas-sniffing for kids and drinking for adults.
- Lack of education, poverty, suicide rate is the highest in the world (6x national average, 4x Candian average), neglect, isolation, physical abuse
What are physical problems that were in Davis Inlet?
no running water, no electricity, no hear, no sewage, over crowded conditions, poor sanitation which leads to disease, no wildlife to hunt, remote location therefore expensive food and supplies (fly-in) animals (caribou) frigtened by NATO flights.
Why did the government move the Innu to the island of Davis Inlet, and what did they think would happen? When did it happen?
- Because they were starving, and they thought they'd become cod fisherman or loggers.
- It happened in 1967.
Where did the Innu live approximately 6000 years ago, and as what?
Northern Labrador as nomadic hunters of caribou.
Who replaced police officers at the barricades at Oka?
What was one of the toughest issues in the negotiations between Mohawks and government authorities?
- Whether they'd get amnesty or not.
- Amnesty is being assured that they wouldn't get punished and wouldn't be detained, interrogated, photographed.
Mohawks in Kahnawake, in sympathy with their brothers and sister in Oka, erected barriers on the .........
The writings of ......., advocating the use of violence to achieve goals, has inspire the more militant Indian who called themselves the .......
- Louis Hall
- Mohawk Warriors
Many Indians believe that Canadian law.........on reserve.
In the eyes of the law, the reserve lands belong to the...
How many Indians live in Canada?
Half a million. Most live on reserves.
Who died in the confrontation at Oka?
- A Quebec police officer was shot and killed.
- Marcel LeMay
In order to prevent the expansion of the golf course, what did the Mohawks do?
They built a barricade.
What reserve would the golf-course in Oka disturb?
Kanesatake Reserve. It was considered "sacred" to the Mohawk people.
Why did the dispute at Oka start?
Because the town council wanted to expand a golf course (9-hole to 18-hole).
Why was the Confrontation at Oka so important?
Because it was the first time Canadians knew that the First Nation's people were unhappy.
Definition of Economic Base.
economic activities that allow a community to exist. For example, a town might exist because a mineral resource in the area is being developed. Problem for Natives ~ ground is frozen, difficult to get minerals.
Definition of Self-Government.
principle that each distinct group of people has the right to control its own affairs. In Canada, this term is most often applied to First Nations. i.e. Nunavut
Definition of Residential Schools.
special schools in larger towns where Aboriginal children were taken to learn, away from their parents and home towns. Purpose: to assimilate the kids.
Definition of Reserve.
area of land set aside the the use of a band of Status Indians. i.e. Six Nations (Brantford) were seen as temporary. Now referred to as "First Nation Communities".
Definition of Band.
an Aboriginal group that is recognized by the Canadian government.The government sets aside money and land (reserves) for use by the band. there are almost 600 bands in Canada. i.e. Stoney Point
Definition of Specific Claims.
First Nation's claim based on the belief that the government didn't fulfill its obligations under a treaty or other agreement related to land money or other assets. i.e. road was not built, school wasn't built.
Definition of Comprehensive Treaties.
First Nation's land treaty negotiated in an area where NO OTHER TREATY has ever been signed. It covers EVERYTHING. i.e. Nunavut.
Definition of Treaties.
in Canada, an official agreement between the Federal government an First Nations whereby the Aboriginal peoples give up their land rights except for reserves and accept treaty money and other kinds of government assistance. i.e. fishing and hunting rights.
Definition of Aboriginal.
descendant of Canada's first inhabitants. They're all status Indians.
Definition of Assimilate.
to lose your culture and adopt the culture of the larger group within which you live. i.e. First Nations adapting broader Canadian culture.
Definition of Indian Act.
act of Canadian government from 1876, where by the government signed treaties with Native groups so that they would give up their claims to the lands they occupied forever, and persuaded them to move to reserves.
Definition of Status Indian.
Native peoples who are entitled to certain rights through treaties made with the government. Recognized by the government--registered. They carry a status card. They don't pay sales tax, hunting and fishing rights, etc.
Definition of Inuit.
Aboriginal person native to the Arctic Region of Canada. ex; signer Susan Aglukark. That live mostly in Nunavut. Singular of Inuit is Inuk.
Definition of Metis.
include people of mixed Aboriginal and European descent. Usually Aboriginal and French or Aboriginal and Scottish. Usually trappers that married Aboriginal women.
Definition of First Nations.
A group of Aboriginal people who share the same culture and heritage. ex; Inuit, Mohawks, etc.
There wasn't just one First American, there...
...were many from various places
What's a common misunderstanding that people had about Prehistoric Americans?
That they're not very smart. We underestimated them; they made their own weapons, had funerals, made clothes,, had boats, etc.
What happened 12 000 years ago?
First Nation people moved into Canada.
What happened 13 000 years ago?
Inuit people stayed in the North.
What happened 16 000 years ago?
First Asian hunters crossed in the Canada.
What happened 90 000 years ago?
The Ice Age begins.
Why was the first theory of how the first inhabitants enter Canada wrong?
Because there wasn't an ice-free corridor that existed 15 000 years ago that they apparently crossed. It was supposed to exist in Alberta.
What was the other (and correct) theory of how the first inhabitants came to Canada?
They used boats to sail to North America.
What was the name of the European explorer who is normally credited of discovering North America?
Columbus, in 1492
When did the vikings arrive in Canada?
About 10 000 years ago.
What were the first Europeans to arrive in the New World? (Canada)
What are the Great Tribes?
- Incas of Peru
- Aztecs and Mayans of Mexico and Central America
What type of people were the original inhabitants of Canada?
They were nomadic hunters.
What was the first theory as to how the first inhabitants cross over to get from Asia to North America?
They crossed over the Bering Strait, a land bridge in between Asia and North America.
When did the first inhabitants arrive in Canada?
About 13-15 000 years ago, during the last Ice Age.
Where did the first inhabitants of Canada come from?
What were the three types of people that were the original inhabitants of Canada?
- The First Nations