This 1494 treaty modified the "Line of Demarcation" giving Portugal claim to modern day Brazil.
Treat Of Tordesillas
In 1513 this Spanish conquistador crossed the isthmus of Panama becoming the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
In 1513 he explored Florida in search of gold and the fountain of youth.
Juan Ponce de Leon
In 1519 he led a dramatic expedition, destroying the Aztecs and gaining enormous riches.
In 1528 he led a disastrous campign through the gulf coast region, only 4 of 400 men returned.
Panfilio de Narvaez
From 1539-1541 this Spaniard led an expedition of 600 men into the interior of N. America discovering the Mississippi River.
Hernando de Soto
From 1540-1542 he led an expedition across the Rio Grande, through NM, AZ, TX, OK, and KS.
Vasquez de Coronado
Spanish labor system using Indian slaves to work on large estates.
As Indians died from disease and over work, Spain turned to this fuel the labor force.
Importing slaves from Africa
In 1497 this Italian under sponsorship of England searched for a NW passage and became the first European to reach North America since the Vikings.
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)
In 1534 the King of France authorized this Frenchman to search for a NW passage, instead sailing up the St. Lawrence river, stopping at Montreal, and claiming it for the French
In 1524 France authorized this Italian to try to duplicate Magellan's circumnavigation and sailed up the coast from NC to Maine.
Giovanni de Verrazzani
In the 16th century an attempt by these to escape persecution in Catholic France, led to a migration to the New World where they were ultimately massacred by Spaniards.
Huguenots (French Protestants)
The oldest European settlement in North America.
Saint Augustine, Florida
English captain who plundered the Spanish on the west coast and claimed Nova Albion (California) for the Queen.
What led Spain's King Phillip II to send the Spanish Armada to conquer England in 1588?
Queen Elizabeth's financing Francis Drake and her support of the Protestant cause.
In 1576 Sir Humphrey Gilbert dispatched Martin Frobisher to look for a NW passage. What other accomplishment of Gilbert's had a substantial impact on the future of English colonization.
He was granted a charter that allowed prospective colonist all the rights of those born in and residing in England.
After Sir Humphrey Gilbert was lost at sea who took up his cause?
His half brother Sir Walter Raleigh
England's first settlement located off the coast of modern day NC.
First colony named after the unmarried Queen.
In the first decade of the 1600's whose writings influenced Englishmen to resume efforts to find a NW passage and colonize N. America?
What were the first two Joint Stock companies to receive charters from James I and Queen Elizabeth?
The Virginia Company of London and The Virginia Company of Plymouth.
This English joint stock company was given a charter to explore North of the Potomac to the border of present day Maine.
The Virginia Company of Plymouth
This English joint stock company was given a charter to explore between the Hudson and Cape Fear rivers.
The Virginia Company of London
The VA Company of London sent 3 ships with 104 people 40 miles up the James river from the Chesapeake Bay to form what settlement?
In 1608 and 1609 his rule "He who works not, eats not" kept Jamestown from collapsing.
In 1612 this VA resident found a West Indian strain of tobacco that thrived in VA.
This system allowed a poor person's passage to America to be payed in exchange for a number of years labor upon their arrival.
The Indenture System
In VA in 1619 representative assembly, house of burgesses, and private land ownership were all introduced as a way to encourage immigration. What man led the faction of the company that pushed for these changes?
What pretexts did King James I use to revoke the VA company of London charter in 1624?
The high mortality rate and the Indian massacre of 1622 that killed 347.
In 1608 this Frenchman established a trading post in Quebec
Samuel de Champlain
In 1673 this Frenchman explored the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys.
In 1682 this Frenchman followed the Mississippi River to its mouth.
Sieur de la Salle
In 1609 Holland sent this Englishman to explore for a NW passage.
In 1624 these two trading outposts were established by the Dutch West India Company.
New Amsterdam (Manhattan Island) and Fort Orange (Albany)
Wealthy men who gave passage to the new world to at least fifty families would be given large tracts of land and the families would be required to tenant farmers for them under what Dutch system?
The Patroon System
This group believed that the Church of England was beyond saving.
Far more numerous than Separatist, this group of people believed the Anglican Church retained to many unscriptural Roman Catholic practices.
Who led the separatists in 1620 to the new world?
What was the name of the ship the Separatist arrived in in 1620?
This was drafted, before William Bradford and the separatists made landfall, to establish the foundation for an orderly government
What king persecuted the puritans aggressively causing many to migrate to America?
King Charles I
What was the first colony the Puritans set out to plant in 1629 in America.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
This leader of the Puritans set out to make an example of what a Christian society should be when he established the Massachusetts Bay colony.
From 1630-1642 20,000 puritans came to the Massachusetts Bay colony in what came to be known as the...
This Puritan preacher who was asked to leave the Mass. Bay colony founded Providence in 1636.
In 1636 this settlement was founded by Roger Williams after he was asked to leave the Mass. Bay Colony
This banished Puritan founded Portsmouth in 1638.
In 1644 this man received a charter to combine Providence and Portsmouth in to the colony of Rhode Island.
This colony was populated by troublemakers and exiles and always experienced political turmoil.
This man a good friend of Mass. governor Winthrop, thought he was exercising more power than he should and moved westward to found Hartford.
In 1639 this document became the first written constitution providing a representative govt.
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
In 1637 a group of puritans led by what man, founded New Haven because they thought Governor Winthrop wasn't strict enough.
Who founded the New Haven settlement?
This settlement had no disagreement amongst the puritans but it was simply an overflow from Massachusetts.
What colony was the first to be granted to a proprietor instead of a joint stock company?
In 1632 who did the King grant the colony of Maryland?
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
This colony was meant to be a refuge in America for English Catholics although from the start it was populated primarily by Protestants.
In 1649 this act was approved in Maryland to ensure Catholics were not discriminated against because of their beliefs.
Act of Religious Toleration
This colony was awarded to 8 nobleman who helped King Charles II regain the crown in 1663.
This colony was founded by planters who immigrated from Barbados.
In 1670 this South Carolina settlement was named in honor of the King
This colony had slavery as a fully developed institution from the onset.
Charles II awarded this colony to his brother James, if he would only conquer it for England first.
New Amsterdam (New York)
King James granted a part of New York to what two men who would rename there holdings New Jersey.
John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.
These colonies had the longest expected life span in America.
The New England Colonies
These colonies were well suited for large plantations with large farms.
The Chesapeake Colonies
These acts set up a trade system that allowed foods traded with America to only be shipped on either American or British ships.
The Navigation Acts (1651, 1660, 1663, 1673)
In 1674 what impoverished nobleman began to oppose VA governor Berkeley at every opportunity which resulted in an armed conflict bearing his name.
Nathaniel Bacon (Bacon Rebellion)
This agreement allowed Puritan church membership to those who did not profess the saving grace.
The Half-Way Covenant
In 1675 a Wampanoag chief led what war to exterminate whites killing some 2000 settlers in New England.
King Phillips War
This unified government over New England was implemented by James II and led by Sir Edmond Andros.
The Dominion of New England
The Salem witch trials were brought to a stop by what Puritan preacher, but only after 20 people had been executed.
This colony was founded as a refuge for Quakers.
Who founded Pennsylvania in 1681?
Why was William Penn awarded Pennsylvania from Charles II?
The King owed William Penn a debt from his late father.
This colony was considered part of Pennsylvania until the American Revolution
This war (1689-1697) involved no major battles in America but brought on a number of border raids by Indians was ended by the Treaty of Ryswick.
King William's War
This war (1702-1713) brought America 12 years of sporadic fighting against France and Spain. It was ended by the Treaty of Utrecht, which gave Britain major territorial gains and trade advanages.
Queen Anne's war... Also called the war of Spanish Succesion in Europe.
This war in 1739 saw American troops play an active role in fighting the French and Spanish and taking thousands in casualties. In 1745 an all New England army captured Louisbourg but it was returned to the French in 1748 when the war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
King George's War (known in Europe as War of Jenkin's Ear)
In 1732 a group of British Philanthropist led by what man got a charter to found the colony of Georgia.
General James Oglethorpe
English political philosopher during the Enlightenment that wrote partially to justify England's 1688 Glorious revolution
During the beginning of the French and Indian War Washington, forced by superior numbers, surrendered at what fort?
What treaty ended the French and Indian war resulting in the French losing all of their holdings in North America?