Equine Management

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Author:
tsbatiste
ID:
251388
Filename:
Equine Management
Updated:
2013-12-08 23:27:11
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Equine Final Review
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Description:
Origins, breed specifics, physical descriptions, restraint, diseases
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  1. Scotch Hobble application
    • -use a 35' to 40' lead
    • 1) tie noose around base of the neck
    • 2) run lead between front legs towards intended leg to be secured
    • 3) tie hobble strap around pastern and attach to rope
    • 4) pull hind leg cranially so that toe is just off the ground and secure rope back towards noose with quick release knot
  2. Stock
    • -most commonly used in a clinic
    • -usually made of pipe
    • -not more than 30" wide
    • -never leave horse unattended
  3. Tieing up a horse
    • 1) only allow a neck's length
    • 2) always tie a quick release or slip knot
    • 3) tie to a place that is sturdy, cannot be eaten, pulled up or break
  4. Haltering a horse
    • 1)work with the head- alleviate fear by calmly petting cheeks
    • 2)use a 8-10 ft lead rope
    • 3) walk around throat latch area close to horse
    • 4)avoid walking in blind spots of horse
  5. Horse blind spots
    directly in front and behind
  6. Equine Behaviors
    • 1) treat as companion animals
    • 2) treat as  individual personalities
    • 3) watch body, ear, nostril, eye, and tail movment/positions
    • 4) assess temperment before approaching
    • 5) approach slowly with confidence
  7. Communication methods when dealing with horses
    • Touch
    • Talk
    • Body language
  8. Horse Dental Formula
    2(I3/3,C1/1,P3-4/3,M3/3)
  9. "Rule of Eights"
    • 8 days - i1 come in
    • 8 weeks - i2 come in
    • 8 months - i3 comes in

    i=deciduous
  10. weanling
    young horse no longer nursing but less than 1 year old
  11. foaling
    the act of giving birth to a foal
  12. yearling
    young horse about 1-2 years old
  13. foal
    newborn horse
  14. gelding
    neutered male horse
  15. filly
    intact female horse that has not had a foal
  16. mare
    intact female horse that has had a foal
  17. colt
    young intact male horse
  18. Stallion
    Adult intact male horse
  19. Horse Temperature
    99-101.5o F
  20. Horse Life span
    20-30 years
  21. Horse Respiratory Rate
    15-20 rpm
  22. Horse Heart Rate
    28-40 bpm
  23. Dentition at 10-30 years
    • Appearance of Galvayne's groove on upper I3 at 10 years at the gumline
    • Half way from top down the tooth - 15 years
    • all the way down the tooth - 20 years
    • Disappears from bottom to midway - 25 years
    • Disappears completely by 30 years
  24. Dentition at 7-10 years
    Notch on upper I3 appear at 7 years - 7 year notch

    Wears away by 10 years
  25. Dentition at 5-7 years
    Canine teeth erupt - all adult incisors are in
  26. Dentition at 4.5 years
    All adult incisors are in
  27. Dentition at 3.5 years
    First and second adult incisors are in. Third is still deciduous
  28. Dentition at 2.5 years
    First adult incisor is in. Second and third are still deciduous
  29. Bishoping
    the grinding of the cups of the incisors to mask the age of the horse
  30. floating teeth
    filing down of points on the premolars and molars of horses
  31. 3 minimum requirements for Appaloosa
    • 1) white sclera
    • 2) striped hooves
    • 3) mottled skin around eyes, muzzle and genitalia
  32. Mule
    a cross between a Jack and a mare
  33. Jack
    male donkey
  34. Jenny
    female donkey
  35. Hinny
    a cross between a stallion and a jenny
  36. RVT duties in Equine Medicine
    Assist with diagnosis of respiratory:colic: lameness: reproductive diseases

    • Assist with pre-op and post-op care
    • Assist with pre-breeding exams
    • Coggins testing for EIA
    • Herd health work
    • research
  37. Herd Health Work entails
    • vaccinations
    • deworming/pasture management
    • sanitation/ventilation
    • neonatal care
    • nutrition
  38. Jockey Club
    1894, New York City
  39. Stud books
    • 1791 - British
    • 1873 - US
  40. First North American Track
    1665, Long Island
  41. Smithfield track
    first track built since Roman times.  1174, London
  42. Thoroughbred foundation sires
    • Darley Arabian
    • Godolphin Arabian
    • Byerly Turk
  43. Xenophon
    • greek soldier "father of Horsemanship"
    • 400 BC essays - foundation of modern horsemanship
  44. First Domestication of Horses
    Babylonia 2000 BC (Egypt 300 years later)
  45. Horse uses
    • Past: food source
    • Present: transportation/work/leisure
  46. 3 undomesticated species
    Zebra, wild African ass, Przewalski horse
  47. Equu
    • True horse
    • high crowned teeth - hipsodont
  48. Pliohippus
    • "One toed grazer"
    • 2-3 mya
    • - splint bones
    • -wider eye
    • -teeth converted completely to grazing
  49. Merychippus
    • "grass eater"
    • 26 mya
    • - high crowns started to develop
    • - middle toe largest, bore all weight and ended in a hoof
  50. Mesohippus
    • "middle horse"
    • 35 mya
    • all 4 feet now 3 toes - middle larger
    • -teeth bigger
    • -browser
  51. Eohippus
    • "dawn horse"
    • 55 mya
    • front feet 4 toes; back feet 3 toes
    • teeth small
    • browser
  52. Brought first domesticated horses to the Americas in 16th century
    Conquistadores
  53. The conquistadores brought which breed of horses to the americas
    Mustang
  54. Horse Breeds of Spanish origin
    • Andalusian
    • Peruvian Paso
    • Paso Fino
    • Mustang
  55. Horse bred by Nez Perce Native Americans
    Appaloosa
  56. King Solomon's Horses
    Arabians
  57. What are Tennessee Walking horses known for?
    The Running Walk
  58. What horse is born dark but turns light grey as they age?
    Lipizzan
  59. French draft horse with Arabian influence
    Percheron
  60. Horse breed that breeds true to chestnut color
    Suffolk Punch
  61. Largest breed of horse
    Shire
  62. Red Roan
    white hairs intermixed with bay
  63. Strawberry Roan
    white hairs intermixed with chestnut/sorrel
  64. Blue Roan
    white hairs intermixed with black
  65. Bay
    tan with black points on mane, tail, ears, muzzle and on legs below knees and hocks.
  66. Pony of the Americas
    • Must have appaloosa coloring
    • Cross between Shetland Pony and Appaloosa
  67. Skewbald tobiano
    any color other than black with white that crosses over the back and extends downward
  68. Skewbald overo
    any color other than black with white that does not cross the dorsal line
  69. Piebald tobiano
    black horse with white that crosses the dorsal line
  70. Piebald overo
    black horse with white that does not cross the dorsal line
  71. Difference between a paint and a pinto
    A paint can only be of Quarterhorse breeding
  72. 2 basic Appaloosa patterns
    • blanket
    • leopard
  73. Snip
    white marking on nose between the nostrils
  74. Star
    white marking of any shape on the forehead
  75. Stripe
    white line down the face
  76. Blaze
    white band down the face but does break the cheek line
  77. Bald or Apron face
    white from forehead to muzzle, extending around eyes and usually breaks the cheek line
  78. coronet
    white around the coronary band
  79. pastern
    white from top of hoof to bottom of fetlock joint
  80. Fetlock
    white from top of hoof to fetlock joint
  81. Half stocking
    white from top of hoof to halfway up cannon
  82. 3/4 stocking
    white from top of hoof to 3/4 way up cannon
  83. full stocking
    white all the way up to the carpus or hocks
  84. 3 ways to apply lip chain
    • 1) chain is run from left ring at base of the ear to left cheek ring, run under the the chin and clipped to the right cheek ring
    • 2) same as 1 except chain is run over the noseband
    • 3) same as 1 except chain is run into the mouth along the upper gum
  85. Foal Restraint
    • -try to keep mother in sight (if she gets to agitated,must remove)
    • -if foal gets to stress, stop immediately
    • -DO NOT FLANK A FOAL
    • -corner against stall wall
    • -hold with one arm around chest and the other raises the tail over the back
  86. 3 types of twitches
    • Rope twitch
    • Chain twitch
    • Humane twitch
  87. Basic principle behind the twitch
    releases endorphins; lasts 5-15 minutes
  88. Front leg tie
    • 1) can use a stirrup leather or long belt
    • 2) strap is placed around pastern of front leg and leg is flexed
    • 3) encircle flexed forearms and secure strap  laterally on leg for quick removal
  89. Xylazine
    • Rompun
    • has analgesic properties
    • 0.5 - 1.1 mg/kg IV/IM
    • produces transient bradycardia and decreased RR
    • can still respond violently to stimuli
  90. Acepromazine Maleate
    • phenothiazine tranqilizer
    • no analgesia
    • 0.044-0.088 mg/kg IV/IM
    • causes hypertension and tachycardia
  91. Torbugesic
    • Butorphanol tartrate
    • 0.05 -0.2 mg/kg
    • opiate agonist with analgesic properties
    • usually combined with a sedative
    • Lowers HR/RR
  92. Dormosedan
    • detomidine
    • muscle relaxant and analgesic
    • does not have flashes of instant awareness
    • 10-40mg/lb IV
  93. Parts of Equine digestive tract
    Mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, right ventral colon, sternal flexure, left ventral colon, pelvic flexure, left dorsal colon, diaphragmatic flexure, right dorsal colon, transverse colon, small colon, rectum
  94. Auscultation
    to listen with a stethoscope
  95. Borborygmus
    rumbling or gurgling noises of the gut of a horse
  96. How do you auscultate a horses' abdomen during an exam?
    in the quadrant format clockwise.
  97. Esophageal Obstruction etiology
    • "choke"
    • dry grains that have been greedily eaten or sometimes alfalfa cubes
  98. Esophageal Obstruction symptoms
    • enlargement of cervical esophagus
    • regurgitation of feed: water and saliva through mouth and nostrils
    • holding neck straight out or arching
  99. Esophageal Obstruction complication
    • Aspiration pneumonia
    • rupture of esophagus
  100. Esophageal Obstruction treatment
    • Pass nasogastric tube, warm gentle gavage under sedation
    • Surgical removal of obstruction if other means do not work
    • Feed small quantities of soft food after removal
    • Broad spectrum antibiotics to prevent aspiration pneumonia
  101. Prevention of Esophageal Obstruction
    • Place rocks in feed to slow down eating
    • Regular dental care
  102. Horse Bots
    • Etiology - Gasterophilus larva
    • Clinical Signs - mild gastric or no signs at all
    • Diagnosis - sometimes presence of eggs on forelegs
    • Treatment - Routine botacide in fall after flies disappear
  103. Habronemiasis
    • etiology - Habronema muscae, H. microstoma and Draschia megastoma
    • clinical signs - usually absent
    • diagnosis - difficult
    • Treatment - routine anthelmintic therapy about every 2 month rotating products
  104. Gastric Ulcers in foals
    • Etiology - stress of disease
    • Clinical signs - foals lay on back attempting to take pressure off stomach and teeth grinding (bruxism)
    • Diagnosis - clinical signs
    • Treatment - Tagament, Cimetidine
  105. Gastric Dilatation/Rupture
    • Etiology - 1) overconsumption of grain/water 2) intestinal obstruction causing secondary reflux
    • Clinical signs - abdominal pain
    • Diagnosis - Passage of nasogastric tube: helps identify stomach contents (full of gas/fluid)
    • Treatment - decompress stomach with nasogastric tube. Surgery to remove obstruction. Fluid therapy
  106. Salmonellosis
    • Etiology - Salmonella spp.
    • Clinical signs - acute diarrhea (projectile and foul smelling, fever, depression, abdominal pain, congested (red) mucous membranes
    • Diagnosis - fecal culture (10 grams) at least 5 different times
    • Treatment: fluid therapy, antidiarrheals, antiinflammatories, antimicrobials
  107. Catharidin Toxicity
    • etiology - ingestion of dead blister beetles trapped in alfalfa hay when harvested.  Beetles produce catharidin toxin that is highly irritating to mucous membranes
    • Treatment - symptomatic therapy, fluids, and pain control
    • Prevention - after June, be aware of grasshoppers in abundance because beetle larva feed off grasshopper eggs
  108. Retained meconium
    • etiology - impaction of first feces
    • Clinical signs - foals try to defecate repeatedly
    • Treatment - soapy enemas, pain control
    • Prevention - routine administration of enemas at birth
  109. Foal Heat Diarrhea
    • etiology: physical changes in GI tract possible from hormone changes in mare and the composition of her milk
    • Clinical sign: watery feces
    • Treatment: self limiting
  110. Other etiologies of Foal Diarrhea
    Salmonellosis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Rotavirus/coronavirus
  111. Colic Etiologies
    • Small intestine volvulus and strangulation
    • Intussusception
    • Impaction of the ileum
    • Thromboembolic mesenteric vascular disease
    • Large colon impaction
    • Cecal impaction
    • Sand ingestion
    • Colonic volvulus
    • Enteroliths
  112. Mild Colic Clinical signs
    • HR: 40-60 bpm
    • RR: 20-30 rpm
    • Temp: 99-100.5 (normal)
    • MM - pale pink
    • CRT 1-2 second
    • Gut sound present and normal
    • Normal passage of feces
    • mild pain level
  113. Moderate Colic Clinical Signs
    • HR: 60-80 bpm
    • RR: 30-40 rpm
    • Temp: 99-100.5 (normal)
    • MM: pale pink - dark red
    • CRT: 2-4 seconds
    • Decreasing gut sounds
    • Small, hard fecal ball passage
    • Moderate pain level
  114. Severe Colic Clinical Signs
    • HR: 80+
    • RR: 40+
    • Temp: Under 99 or over 103
    • MM - Reddish/purplish
    • CRT- 5+ seconds
    • Absent gut sounds
    • No fecal passage
    • Severe pain level
  115. Parts of the Colic Evaluation
    • 1) Temperature
    • 2) Heart Rate
    • 3) Respiratory Rate
    • 4) Peripheral pulses: submandibular artery, facial artery
    • 5) MM color / CRT
    • 6) PCV/TP
    • 7) Nasogastric Tube Intubation
    • 8) Abdominocentesis
  116. Nasogastric Tube Intubation findings
    • Yellow Green Color - bile reflux
    • Reddish Color - mucosal damage or hemorrhage within intestinal tract
  117. Abdominocentesis findings
    • Clear to yellow with slight turbidity - normal
    • Reddish color with increased turbidity - Intestinal devitalization
    • Reddish brown - Intestine necrosis
    • Flakes of feed/ingesta in fluid - gastric/intestinal rupture or inappropriate needle placement
  118. Equine Core Vaccines
    • Eastern/Western Enchephalomyelitis
    • Rabies
    • Tetanus
    • West Nile Virus
  119. At Risk Vaccinations
    • Anthrax
    • Botulism
    • Equine Herpesvirus
    • Equine Influenza
    • Potomac Horse Fever
    • Snake Bite
    • Strangles
  120. Equine Infectious Anemia
    • -caused by a virus
    • -no cure no vaccine
    • -spread through blood by biting flies or contaminated equipment and iatrogenically
  121. Inapparent EIA form
    • -shows no outward symptoms but test positive on Coggins test
    • -pose the greatest threat because they act as reservoirs
  122. Chronic EIA form
    • -positive Coggins test
    • -may develop weakness, gradual weight loss, anemia and swelling of lower legs. Symptom can subside and reoccur
  123. Acute EIA form
    • -death often occurs 1-2 months after exposure.
    • -develop fever, go off feed and look outwardly sick.
    • -may test negative for 16 to 42 days due to body not producing detectable antibodies
  124. What if a horse is EIA positive
    • 1) usually recommended to be euthanized
    • 2) if kept must be branded on left shoulder with 74-A and isolated 200 yards from others
    • 3) donated to research
  125. Equine Parasites of the mouth
    Gasterophilus spp (bot larvae)
  126. Stomach parasites
    • Draschia megatoma (stomach worm)
    • Habronema spp (stomach worm)
    • Trichostrongylus axei (minute stomach worm)
    • Gasterophilus spp (bot larvae)
  127. Small intestine parasites
    • Parascaris equorum (roundworm)
    • Strongyloides westeri (threadworm)
    • Anoplocephala magna (tapeworm)
    • Paranoplocephala mamillana (tapeworm)
  128. Large intestine parasites
    • Strongyles spp (large strongyles)
    • Cyathostomum spp (small strongyles)
    • Oxyuris equi (pinworm)
    • Anoplocephala perfoliata (tapeworm)
  129. Liver parasite
    Strongylus edentatus (large strongyle larvae)
  130. Lungs parasites
    • Dictyocaulus arnfeldi (lungworm)
    • Parascaris equorum (roundworm larvae)
    • Draschia megastoma (stomach worm larvae)
    • Habronema spp (stomach worm larvae)
  131. Artery parasite
    Strongylus Vulgaris (large strongyle larvae)
  132. Body cavity parasite
    Strongylus edentatus (large strongyle larvae)
  133. Skin/Connective Tissue parasites
    • Draschia/Habronema larva (summer sores)
    • Strongyloides westeri (intestinal threadworm)
    • Onchocerca cervicalis (threadworm)
  134. Eye parasites
    • Thelazia lacrymalis (eyeworm)
    • Onchocerca cervicalis (threadworm)
  135. Vaccines we used at Tomball on the horses
    Encevac TC-4: Equine Influenza, WEE/EEE, Tetanus toxoid

    Strepvac II: Streptococcus equi
  136. Dewormer used on horses at Tomball
    Zimecterin Gold: praziquantel, ivermectin
  137. Eqvalan Liquid/Paste
    Ivermectin
  138. Panacur granules/paste/suspension
    Fenbendazole
  139. Anthelcide EQ paste
    Oxibendazole
  140. Task Granules
    Dichlorvos
  141. Equizole A Liquid
    Piperazine, thiabendazole
  142. Stongid paste, Strongid T
    Pyrantel pamoate
  143. Strongid C
    Pyrantel tartrate
  144. Pre-Op physical exam
    • Auscultation of Heart - check for murmurs
    • Palpation of Peripheral pulse - quality and rate of pulse
    • MM color/CRT - adequate perfusion
    • Skin turgidity to assess hydration
    • Auscultation of Respiration - any crackles (cellophane) or wheezes, nasal discharge
  145. Pre-Op Hematologic evaluation
    • PCV/TP
    • WBC count
  146. Pre-Operative Medications
    generally not given due to potential for post-op ileus (intestinal stasis)
  147. Definition of Anesthesia
    loss of feeling or sensation
  148. Definition of analgesia
    Relief of pain without loss of consciousness
  149. Definition of sedation
    act of calming, decreasing excitability and irritability: animal will remain standing
  150. IV Anesthesia
    • Xylazine given first for sedation/analgesia
    • Ketamine given after 3-5 minutes - dissociative

    • Induction and recovery-smooth
    • Duration 15-20 minutes
    • Remove halter and cover eyes once horse is on the ground
  151. Guaifenesin/Thiamyl sodium combination
    • 5% "GG" glycerol guaiacolate - muscle relaxant and mild sedaton
    • 0.2% thiamyl sodium IV - ultra short-acting barbituate
    • Duration - 12 to 60 minutes
    • requires catheter placement
    • Xylazine
  152. Guaifenesin/Xylazine/Ketamine combination
    • 1) Xylazine - 0.5mg/lb - sedation
    • 2) GG - 2.5mg/lb - muscle relaxant
    • 3) Ketamine - 0.7mg/lb - bolus

    requires catheter placement
  153. This is the type of anesthesia that is produced by the controlled administration of gaseous or volatile agents via the respiratory system
    Inhalant Anesthesia
  154. Advantage of Inhalant Anesthesia v. Intravenous
    • 1) easier to control level of anesthetic depth
    • 2) used for procedures greater than 1 hour
  155. Disadvantages of Inhalant Anesthesia
    • 1) requires the use of an anesthetic machine
    • 2) requires the use of oxygen
    • 3) requires the use of an endotracheal tube
  156. What must be done prior to anesthetic induction to reduce risk during intubation?
    The oral cavity must be flushed out with dosing syringe and clean water to remove any food or foreign matter that may be aspirated.
  157. Tracheal Intubation procedure
    • 1) done blindly
    • 2) make sure cuff is patent
    • 3) use the largest tube possible that will slide easily through larynx
    • 4) tube is advanced between cheek and teeth until it bumps the larynx
    • 5) extent head and advance tube while rotating
    • 6) once in place, inflate cuff with a 60cc syringe
  158. Common Inhalant Anesthetics
    • Halothane
    • Isofluorane
    • Nitrous Oxide - needs oxygen to prevent hypoxia
  159. What conditions occur if an horse is positioned wrong during anesthesia?
    • nerve damage
    • rhabdomyolysis
  160. Stage one of Clinical Anesthesia
    • motor excitation and ataxia
    • preanesthetics reduce
    • rapid acting drugs prevent
  161. Stage two of Clinical Anesthesia
    Involuntary excitement or delirium

    • loss of consciousness and voluntary control
    • CNS excitation or increased stimulation occurs
  162. Stage three of Clinical Anesthesia
    • consciousness and pain sensations are abolished
    • muscular relaxation occurs
  163. Light Surgical
    • a form of stage 3 anesthesia characterized by:
    • Nystagmus
    • palpebral reflex
    • steady respirations
  164. Deep Surgical
    a form of stage 3 anesthesia characterized by:

    • complete loss of muscle tone (loss of palpebral and corneal reflexes)
    • shallower respiration
  165. The flow of gas: Vetroson Large Animal Anesthetic Machine
    O2 from tank>flowmeter>p/u anesthetic in vaporizer>plenum above soda lime>fills rebreathing bag (2/3)>mixed gases into inhalation tube>endotracheal tube to animal>animal exhales>gases back through endotracheal tube>exhalation hose>soda lime canister>excess gases exhausted past pop off valve>out through scavenging hose>soda lime filters out CO2>gases return to plenum recombine with fresh O2 and anesthetic vapor
  166. What dictates artificial manipulation of equine estrous cycles?
    1) Breed association age requirements - pressure to have foals born as close to Jan 1st as possible.

    2) Economic pressures - maximize maturation before artificial birthday
  167. How is the mare's cycle artificially changed?
    Manipulation of physical environment - artificial lighting to create 16 hour days

    Hormone supplements
  168. What kind of cycle does a mare have?
    seasonally polyestrous
  169. What is the condition where an animal will cycle repeatedly during a given season?
    Seasonally polyestrous
  170. When is the natural breeding season of an equine?
    centers around long-day length - from late March to October - northern hemisphere

    reversed south of the Equator
  171. Mare estrus length
    21-22 days but can be 4-7 day shorter during breeding season
  172. How do you tell a mare's optimal breeding time?
    • Ultrasound monitoring of follicular development
    • rectal palpation
  173. How long is mare Diestrus
    Consistent 15 days per hormone level
  174. When does behavioral receptivity occur
    1 day after ovulation
  175. Teasing "out"
    • mare resists stallions advances by:
    • kicking, squealing, pinned back ears, clamping tail between her legs
  176. Teasing "in"
    • mare shows estrus status by:
    • squatting, urinating, lifting of the tail, winks (everts her clitoris) on stallion approach
  177. Transition Phase
    • characterized by irregular estrus behaviors without ovulation
    • will always precede onset of cyclicity regardless of induction of cycle
  178. Treatment of transition phase behaviors
    Behaviors can be stopped by synthetic progesterones

    • Regu-Mate
    • Intervet
  179. What Breeding Soundness Exam?
    • Rectal palpation
    • Vaginal speculum examination
    • Uterine "CBC": culture, biopsy, cytology
  180. When is breeding examination called for?
    • Failure to become pregnant after breeding
    • At sale/before mare purchase
    • Before conception
  181. Which hand is used during rectal palpation of mare reproductive structures?
    The ob sleeve is placed on the non-dominant hand and lubricated after the tail has been wrapped by vet wrap
  182. What is used to evaluate ovarian structure?
    Ultrasonography: follicles appear black, corpora lutea appear grayish/webbed
  183. Appearance of uterus
    • visualized with ultrasonography
    • changes during estrus resembles cartwheel due to edema in endometrial folds
  184. "Clean hand, Dirty hand" technique
    aseptic technique required for all vaginal procedures (speculum exam, "cbc")

    • clean hand retrieves cleaning supplies
    • dirty hand cleans and preps areas as if for surgery

    It is important that NO water be added to the disinfectant soap
  185. Length of gestations
    11 months or about 330 days
  186. Vaginal Speculum examination
    • Checks for: (C'DUO)
    • Cervical trauma
    • Discharges - vaginal, cervical, uterine
    • Urine pooling in cranial vagina
    • Other conditions associated with subfertility
  187. Indications of High Risk Parturition
    Vaginal discharge - indicative of placentitis or urine pooling

    Udder milk dripping or streaming - placentitis, twins, wrong delivery date calculation
  188. Signs of impending parturition
    • "waxing teats" droplets of dried milk appear due to udder filling
    • Vulva elongates
    • Pelvic ligaments relax
    • Test colostral Ca levels: > 10-12 mmol/dL
    • Behavioral changes
    • Sweating
  189. Stage 1 Labor - KPLANT
    • Kicking at abdomen
    • Pacing
    • Lifting the tail head
    • Agitation
    • Nickering
    • Turning and biting at sides
  190. Stage 2 Labor - PAFFS
    • Placenta rupture
    • Allantoic fluid escaps
    • Forceful labor
    • Foal delivered in 30 minutes or else assisted or Cesarean
    • Strip umbilical cord of blood and break near foal's body
  191. Stage 3 Labor
    • Delivery of placenta
    • Weight and evaluate placenta to ensure intact
  192. Postpartum complications
    • colic
    • large colon volvulus
    • uterine artery hemorrhage
    • retained placenta
    • peritonitis
  193. Foal's first 24 hours
    • suck reflex begins shortly after birth
    • standing within 1-2 hours
    • successful nursing in 6 hours
    • first urination around 12 hours
    • passage of meconium in first few hours (may admin an enema to prevent retained meconium)
    • capable of running in 24 hours
  194. Foal pulse
    60-80 bpm
  195. Foal respiration rate
    10-20 rpm
  196. Nap/Nursing habits of foals
    • nap - 10-20 minute periods
    • nursing - 5 minute periods
  197. Weight gain of foals
    2-4lb/day
  198. Normal foal neurological findings
    • base-wide stance at first
    • exaggerated steps at first
    • jerky movements
    • when restrained, initially goes limp
  199. Routine monitoring of Foal for:
    • attitude
    • aptitude
    • urine and fecal production
  200. Routine care of umbilical remnant
    1% iodine,tid/qid x 2 days
  201. FPT
    Failure of passive transfer of maternal antibodies for tetanus

    IgG <800mg/dL after 24 hours - through ELISA snap test
  202. FPT treatments
    detected less than 24 hours = high quality colostrum via nasogastric tube

    detected after 24 hours = IV plasma
  203. Foal energy requirement
    130-150kcal/kg/day
  204. Sources of nutrition and methods of feeding
    Mare (dam): ideal source of nutrition - milk mare in cases of foal inability to nurse

    Nurse mare: bond foal to nurse mare if she is sole milk provider

    Bottle feeding - labor intensive and potential for aspiration pneumonia

    Bucket feeding - commonly used with orphans
  205. Nasogastric tube feeding
    • primarily used with critically ill foals
    • can be left indwelling if placed right
    • must be checked before each feeding
    • small volumes increasing from 5-10%bw over 12 feedings
  206. Assessment for risk based vaccines
    • Geographic location
    • Use of horse - large gatherings of horses
    • safety of vaccine vs. risk
  207. Lameness definition:
    A manifestation of asymmetry in movement.
  208. What is lameness an indication of?
    Structural or functional disorder in one or more limbs
  209. When can lameness manifest?
    • Progression of movement
    • Standing in one position
  210. What are the 3 effects of lameness?
    • 1) Restricted movement
    • 2) Reduced performence
    • 3) Abnormal gait
  211. 3 goals of the lameness examination:
    • 1) determine which leg is affected
    • 2) Differentiate between supporting and swinging-leg lameness
    • 3) Establish the components producing lameness
  212. What are the components producing lameness?
    • musculoskeletal and/or
    • neurologic
  213. This is the classification lameness notice when horse is supporting weight on the foot or when the horse lands on it.
    Supporting limb lameness
  214. Common causes of supporting limb lameness
    Injury to bones, joints, collateral ligaments or motor nerves and injuries to the hoof
  215. This classification of lameness is seen when the leg is in motion
    Swinging leg lameness
  216. Common causes of swinging-leg lameness
    Pathologic changes involving joint capsules, muscles, tendons, tendon sheath or bursas
  217. This classification of lameness is evident when the limb is moving and when supporting weight
    Mixed lameness
  218. This classification of lameness causes an uneven distribution of weight on another limb(s) which produces lameness in previously sound limbs
    Complementary lameness
  219. Basic lameness history questions:
    • 1)any inciting factors
    • 2)changes in intensity and duration
    • 3)responses to treatments already attempted
    • 4)time elapsed since last hoof trimming/shoeing
    • 5)when is the lameness noticed most
    • 6)is there any stumbling
  220. Stationary phase of lameness exam:
    Assesses the horses position and posture while standing still from all sides
  221. Mobile phase of lameness exam:
    Horse is observed at a walk and trot laterally and coming/going to identify the limb or limbs and degree of lameness
  222. Head bob during forelimb evaluation
    Will fall on sound foot landing and rise when unsound foot lands
  223. Toe landing first indicates:
    navicular disease
  224. Head bob during hindlimb evaluation
    head will rise when the sound foot lands and lowers when the unsound foot lands
  225. Gluteal or "hip hike" during hindlimb examination
    The affected limb will be brought higher
  226. Palpation/manipulation phase of lameness exam
    • evaluate digital pulses - will be stronger with pain
    • manipulate each hoof - use a hoof tester ever 2-3 cm to check sole
    • Always check coronary band for heat/swelling
    • pastern joint and fetlock flexion tests
  227. Lameness Grading System
    • I: not observed on walk but seen on trot
    • II: Alteration of gait on walk noted, no overt head movements
    • III: observed on walk and trot
    • IV: non-weight bearing

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