General Psychology Final

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General Psychology Final
2013-12-07 18:24:49
Psychological Disorders

General psychology final
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  1. What psychological disorders are seen worldwide?
    Depression and schizophrenia
  2. psychological disorders
    persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions
  3. When does a behavior become a disorder?
    When it becomes deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
  4. The Medical Model history
    • developed by Phillippe Pinel
    • insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind
  5. The Medical Model
    the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
  6. Medical Model Steps
    • 1) etiology- cause and development of the disorder
    • 2) diagnosis- identifying symptoms and distinguishing one disease from another
    • 3) treatment- causing remission of the symptoms of a disorder using medications, sometimes in a psychiatric hospital
    • 4) prognosis- forecast about the disorder
  7. The Biopsychosocial Approach
    Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
  8. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
    rendered to describe psychological disorders. it assumes the medical model.
  9. Goals of DSM
    • 1) Describe all 400 psychological disorders.
    • 2) Determine how prevalent each disorder is.
  10. Purpose of DSM
    To classify the disorders, not what causes them or there cures.
  11. Critiques of DSM
    "putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry"
  12. Labeling Psychological Disorders
    • 1) Labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another and establishing therapy
    • 2) Critics argue that labels may stigmatize individuals (self-fulfilling labels)
  13. Bias Perceptions
    "Insanity" labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes.
  14. Anxiety Disorder
    feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
  15. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
  16. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms
    • 1) Constant worry about a wide range of issues.
    • 2) Autonomic arousal
    • 3) Persistant and uncontrollable tension
  17. Panic Disorder
    an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
  18. Panic Disorder Symptoms
    feeling of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations
  19. Phobia
    persistant and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior
  20. Post- Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD)
    anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
  21. Resilience to PTSD
    • only about 10% of women and 5% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD
    • many holocaust survivors show remarkable resilience following traumatic situations
    • all major religions of the world suggest that surviving a trauma leads to the growth of an individual
  22. Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder
    an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both
  23. Obsessive (repetitive thoughts)
    • concern with dirt, germs, or toxins
    • something terrible happening (fire, death, illness)
    • symmetry, order, or exactness
  24. Compulsions (repetitive behaviors)
    • excessive hand washing, bathing, toothbrushing, or grooming
    • repeating rituals (in/out of a door, up/down from a chair) 
    • checking doors, locks, appliances, care brakes, homework
  25. Learning Perspective
    • theorists suggest that fear conditioning leads to anxiety 
    • fear responses are developed through observational learning
  26. Biological Perspective
    • evolutionary psychologists believe that our ancestors learned to fear snakes, spiders, and other dangerous animals to preserve our species
    • generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and even OCD are linked with brain circuits
  27. Agoraphobia
    Panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which a person has attacks of intense fear and anxiety. There is also a fear of being in places where it is hard to escape, or where help might not be available.
  28. Social Phobia
    Social phobia is a strong fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed. This fear can be so strong that it gets in the way of going to work or school or doing other everyday things
  29. Panic Attack
    Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder in which you have repeated attacks of intense fear that something bad will happen.
  30. Dissociative Disorders
    disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
  31. Dissociative Disorder Symptoms
    • 1) Having a sense of being unreal
    • 2) Being separated from the body
    • 3) Watching yourself as if in a movie
  32. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
    • a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities 
    • formerly called multiple personality disorder 
  33. DID Critics
    • critics argued that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20th century. 
    • DID has not been found in other countries
    • Role-playing by people open to therapist's suggestions 
    • learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety
  34. Personality Disorders
    psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
  35. Personality Disorder Clusters
    • 1) Odd or eccentric - paranoid, schizoid, or schizotypal
    • 2) Dramatic, emotional, or erratic- antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic 
    • 3) Fearful or anxious- avoidant, dependent, and obsessive compulsive
  36. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    a condition in which people have an excessive sense of self-importance, an extreme preoccupation with themselves, and lack of empathy for others
  37. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • a disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members
    • sociopath and psychopath
  38. mood disorders
    psychological disorders characterized by emotion extremes
  39. Major Depressive Disorder
    a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed modes or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities along with at least four other symptoms
  40. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder
    • lethargy and fatigue
    • feelings of worthlessness
    • loss of interest in family and friends
    • loss of interest in activities
  41. Bi-polar Disorder
    a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
  42. Bi-polar Disorder mania
    • elation 
    • euphoria 
    • desire for action
    • hyperactive
    • multiple ideas
  43. Bi-polar Disorder depression 
    • gloomy
    • withdrawn
    • inability to make decisions 
    • tired
    • slowness of thought
  44. Suicide Risk Factors
    • suicide in the family
    • preexisting psychological disorder
    • alcohol use and abuse
    • past suicidal behavior 
    • experience of a shameful/ humiliating stressor
    • communicating suicidal ideation 
    • giving belongings away
  45. Biological Perspectives (mood disorder)
    Genetic influences: mood disorders run in families. the depression rate in identical twins is higher than in that of fraternal twins
  46. Social-cognitive perspective (mood disorder)
    suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles
  47. Schizophrenia
    a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors
  48. Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
    the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized and delusional talking)
  49. Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
    the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies)
  50. hallucinations
    • perceived things that are not really there
    • usually auditory and less commonly visual
  51. delusions
    false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur
  52. Onset and Development of Schizophrenia
    Schizophrenia strikes young people as they mature into adults. It affects men and women equally, but men usually suffer more severely from it than women.
  53. acute schizophrenia
    "relapses" when patients experience sensations that are an addition to their usual repertoire of feelings
  54. genetic factors of schizophrenia
    The likelihood of someone suffering from schizophrenia is 50% if their identical twin has the disease.
  55. viral infection of schizophrenia
    Schizophrenia has also been observed in individuals who contracted a viral infection (flu) during the middle of their fetal development
  56. anorexia nervosa
    an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight
  57. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating with purging or fasting
  58. characteristics of eating disorders
    low self-evaluations, set perfectionist standards, fret about falling short of expectations, and are intensely concerned with how others perceive them