Psyc Learning 2

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Author:
ndumas2
ID:
25141
Filename:
Psyc Learning 2
Updated:
2010-06-29 16:54:20
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Learning
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Description:
second pt of learning
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  1. Examples of Delayed Reinforcer vs Immediate Reinforcers
    • We may be inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers
    • (watching TV) rather than large delayed reinforcers (getting an A in a course)
    • which require consistent study.
  2. Continuous Reinforcement
    Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs
  3. Partial
    Reinforcement
    • Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though
    • this results in slower acquisition in
    • the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on.
  4. The _____ or _____, comes
    with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food
    or water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal’s
    response.

    operant chamber, or Skinner box
  5. —______reinforcers
    guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through
    successive approximations.
    Shaping
  6. Continuous Reinforcement

    Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs.
  7. Partial Reinforcement

    Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on.
  8. Fixed-ratio schedule:
    • Reinforces

    • a response only after a specified number of responses. e.g., piecework pay.
    • After reward, brief pause, then returns to high rate

  9. Variable-ratio schedule

    • Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. This is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like gambling,
    • fishing.)

  10. Fixed-interval schedule

    Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Increases responses as the anticipated time draws near (e.g., checking mail)

  11. Variable-interval schedule

    • Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses.
    • Slow, steady responding (never know when…)
  12. Punishment
    An aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows.
  13. Ways to decrease Behavior
  14. Although there may be some justification for occasional punishment, it usually leads to negative effects. like...

  15. 1.Results in unwanted fears.
    • 2.Conveys no information to the organism.
    • 3.Justifies pain to others.
    • 4.Causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its absence.
    • 5.Causes aggression towards the agent.
    • 6.Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in place of another.
  16. Rats seem to develop ______ or mental representations, of the layout of the maze (environment).
    cognitive maps,
  17. Such cognitive maps are based on ___ ___ which becomes apparent when an incentive is given
    latent learning,
  18. Intrinsic Motivation

    The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
  19. Extrinsic Motivation

    The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
  20. —Unnecessary rewards can harm intrinsic motivation, Example...
    • E.g.,
    • children promised a reward for playing with an interesting toy later play with the toy less than unpaid counterparts
  21. It is eaiser for an orginism to learn to operate associations that are ___ or ____
    Ecologically relevant, or —Evolutionarily adaptive
  22. Ecologically relevant
    similar to how stimuli are associated in the natural environment

    —E.g., teaching a pigeon to flap its wings to avoid shock
  23. reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted Behavior (whining) ...
    decreases their occurrence.
  24. Modeling
    Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others.
  25. Neuroscientists discovered ____ ____ in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning.

    It also Helps with
    empathy and theory of mind.

    mirror neurons
  26. TRUE OR FALSE
    children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express
    increased aggression.
    TRUE
  27. During the late 20th century, the average child viewed some _____ TV murders
    before finishing elementary school.
    8000

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