English: grammar; conditional and alternative structures

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Author:
Ladybird
ID:
251433
Filename:
English: grammar; conditional and alternative structures
Updated:
2013-12-07 05:23:53
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English grammar conditional alternative structures
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English: grammar; conditional and alternative structures
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  1. Zero conditional
    • if/ when/ whenever + present tense,
    • present tense

    • General or scientific Facts and definitions
    • If you burn fossil fuels, carbon dioxide is produced.
  2. first conditional
    if+ present tense, will + bare infinitive/ imperative

    • to give conditional instructions
    • If we continue to pollute our planet, future Generations will suffer.
    • real conditions in the present or future and their results in the present or future
    • If the People from Greenpeace call, tell them I'll call them back later.
  3. second conditional
    if + past simple / past continuous, would + bare infinitive

    hypothetical conditions in the present or future and their hypothetical results in the present or future

    What would the local government do if ther was an earthquake in the area?
  4. third conditional
    if + past perfect, would have + past participle

    hypothetical conditions in the past and their results in the past

    A lot more People would have been trapped by the flood if there hadn't been a warning.
  5. mixed conditionals
    • hypothetical conditions in the past and their results in the present
    • You might not be in so much Trouble if you hadn't started gambling.

    • hypothetical conditions in the present and their results in the past
    • if i were you, i would have made ...
  6. inverted conditionals
    • more formal form of the first conditional (with should)
    • If the drought should continue.... / If the drought continues...
    • more formal form of the second conditional
    • If we were to stop... / If we stopped....
    • more formal form of the third conditional
    • If Charles Darwin hadn't visited ...
  7. other conditional structures
    • as / so long as
    • provided / providing (that)
    • on condition (that)
    • supposing
    • if it wasn't for + noun
    • were it not for + noun
    • but for + noun
    • if it hadn't beenĀ  for + noun
    • had it not been for + noun
    • if ... (should) happen to
    • Otherwise
    • Unless
    • in case of + noun
    • in case
    • .....
  8. other uses of if
    to mean "if it is true that"

    to mean " if you are willing to"

    to mean "I'm saying this in case"

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