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The Articles of Confederation
- 1. They set the rules for operations of the "U.S." confederation
- 2. In order to change the constitution, it had to a be unanimous vote
- 3. States had power to tax their own ppl
- SIG: They didn't strike right balance between large & small states in legislative decision making process, so they were replaced by the Constitution
The Bill of Rights
- 1. List of fundamental rights of citizens of the U.S.
- 2. There would be no Bill of Rights if it weren't for the complaints from opponents of Constitution
- 3. Prevented the ensuing misinterpretations of power by the gov
- SIG: Served to protect rights from infringement by the gov
Alien and Sedition Acts
- 1. Laws targeted Jeffersonians rather than Federalists
- 2. Alien Friends Act allowed Pres to deport anyone who apposed a threat
- 3. Sedition Act allowed citizens to be jailed if they said anything bad against government
- SIG: Acts were repealed and ended with a fight in Congress over Sedition Acts
Formation of political parties
- 1. They perform important function of legitimizing the political system by representing diff social groups & lending authority to political decisions.
- 2. They play key role in materializing a regime's organizational principles
- 3. Political parties are most important intermediate structures between the executive and the parliament
- SIG: Meant to join together to sell their ideas to their fellow citizens by ultimately putting these ideas into practice in gov for good of the nation.
Lewis & Clark Expedition
- 1. They were in territory that had not really been "claimed" yet
- 2. Montana, parts of Idaho, & Pacific Northwest had really good land
- 3. They got back in 1806 & got land w/ other rewards
- SIG: They found out there's no Northwest passage
War of 1812
- 1. There was Marytime tensions between British vs. new U.S. & French vs. U.S.
- 2. Caused crisis during Jeffersonian era
- 3. This war was immensely unpopular on Atlantic Sea Board, New England
- SIG: U.S. proved that it had a right to be a power in the international stage.
- 1. He was the last president to be veteran of Revolutionary War
- 2. Hero of Battle of New Orleans
- 3. He had a very horrible childhood
- SIG: He allowed "common" people to work in government, and believed that soverienty belonged with the people.
- 1. Created pan-Indian confederacy (movement across tribes) in Old Northwest
- 2. He was very against selling Indian lands
- 3. He was credited w/ helping lower Canada from U.S
- SIG: He was remembered as visionary who sought to unite all Indians against advance of white society
Trail of Tears
- 1. 16,000 Cherokees walked the trail
- 2. The total number of deaths estimated at 4000 from disease
- 3. Andrew Jackson used military force to evacuate tribes from their homeland.
- SIG: One of many attempts by the Whites to remove Native Amer's from their homelands by force
- 1. South freaks over new Northern-friendly tariff
- 2. South Carolina decides it can "nullify" any federal law it doesn't like
- 3. South wanted to trade big thing, cotton, w/ Great Britain
- SIG: Henry Clay helped this compromise, then crisis passed w/ ppl calming down
- 1. Rotating drum w/ nails that quickly separated cotton seeds to form fiber
- 2. It did the work of 50 slaves
- 3. It turned child labor into necessity
- SIG: It paved the way to Civil War & reinvigorated slavery
- 1. A lot of ppl shot themselves accidently
- 2. Trail was boring and dusty
- 3. Diseases tended to kill 1/10 ppl
- SIG: It was the gateway to the West
- 1. The Americans out numbered them
- 2. Mexico invaded Texas & the U.S. and shot ppl
- 3. U.S. declared war against Mexico
- SIG: U.S. won and accomplished in expansion of the country
Compromise of 1850
- 1. They wanted to split down the middle to slave state and free slave state
- 2. They made Cali a free slave state
- 3. There was no slave trade in D.C.
- SIG: The republicans & democrats were finally happy & slavery was stil alive in the form of labor and non-rights
Dred Scot Decision
- 1. The Supreme Court denied Scott his freedom
- 2. A slave didn't become free when taken into a free state
- 3. Congress couldn't bar slavery from a territory & blacks could not be citizens.
- SIG: The decision barred slaves and their descendants from citizenship, thus, helping to push country towards civil war.
- 1. Gold was struck in Cali
- 2. The ppl that found gold weren't excited about it & kept it secret
- 3. It brought ppl from all over the world to Cali
- SIG: It solidified the US claim to the entire middle of the North Amer continent
Fugitive Slave Act
- 1. It brought ugliness of slavery into the North
- 2. It tended to radicalize both sides
- 3. It was forced by Federal law to kidnap slaves
- SIG: It gave then the right to go into the north and bring back what they viewed as property
- 1. A firm demonstration of the President’s executive war powers.
- 2. It only applied to the states in rebellion
- 3. It helped prevent the involvement of foreign nations in the Civil War.
- SIG: It paved the way for African-Americans to fight for their freedom & for total abolition of slavery in U.S.
The Civil War
- 1. War had everything to do w/ slavery
- 2. VP said that the reason this situation happened is because blacks were "inferior" to whites
- 3. South went to war to preserve slavery
- SIG: It had a profound impact, technologically, on the development of modern weapons and techniques.
- 1. He was greatest failure as president to bring just peace
- 2. He was a Southerner & pro-union democrat because he was angry at Aristocrats
- 3. He did not have desire to help slaves
- SIG: Despite not being respected for his vision of reconstruction, the 13th & 14th amendments were passed freeing & extending rights to slaves during his time in office.
Year Constitution was Ratified
Years of the Civil War
- -Commander-in-Chief of Continental Army
- -President of the 1787 Constitutional Convention
- -First President (1789-1797)
- -Above party
- -Elected unanimously by electoral college
John Adams (1735-July 4, 1826)
- -First VP
- -Second Pres (1797-1802)
- -Federalist Party
- -Defended British soldiers from Boston "Massacre"
Secretary of State
In charge of foreign policy; In charge nation's diplomacy
Thomas Jefferson (1743 - July 4, 1826)
- -"Jeffersonian Republican"
- -First Secretary of State
- -Third Pres
The slaves built the White house and ______ ________ was the first to move into it.
Election of 1800
- -John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson
- -Hamilton was mad w/ Adams about making peace w/ France
- -Democratic-Rep wanted Aaron Burr
- -Aaron Burr shot Hamilton
- -In tied elections, congress decides which was dominated by Democrats
- -Most powerful, influential guy among Federalists: Hamilton
- -He & Jefferson are opposites, Also had PERSONAL hatred against Burr as human being
- -Hamilton went for Jefferson & Jefferson won
- -Election was big deal cuz "normal way" to replace one party or set of beliefs w/ another was to have a Revolution; to change it, u had to kill each other
- -As much as we hated political ranker of parties, in this case, they didn't have to shoot each other
Fancy way of saying that North & South economic systems were/weren't based onslavery; tension between slaves/free states