Test 3

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Test 3
2010-06-28 18:08:26

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  1. What kind of nutrient comes in large quantities?
    Macronutrients aka essential nutrients

    C,H, N, O, P, S, Na, Cl, k, Fe, Mg
  2. Nutrition in small quantities of this is called what?
    Micronutrients trace elements such as Zn, Mn, and Cu
  3. Organic nutrient that cannot be made by microbes that you must get from a food source, whats that called?
    Growth factor: these nutrients cannot be synthesized aka essential elements, obtained from food.
  4. A mineral ion that is important to the cytochromes?
    Iron is an important component of the cythchrome proteins of cell respiration
  5. A mineral ion that is iomportant to the chloroplasts is?
    Magnesium is a component of clorophyll and a stabalizer of cell respiration
  6. What does phototroph mean?
    Ability to capture energy of light rays and transform it into chemical energy that can be used in cell metabolism called photosynthesis
  7. What is the definition of autotroph?
    A microorganism that requires only inorganic nutrients and whose sole source of carbon is carbon dioxide. Depends on co2 for its carbon needs.
  8. What does heterotroph refer to?
    • An organism that relies upon organic compounds for its carbon energy needs.
    • Most hetertrophs are chemohetrotrophs. i.e. aerobic respiration
  9. What does chemotroph refer to?
    Chemotrophs - extracts energy from inorganic substances. Energy from chemicals
  10. Organisms that feed off dead things are called?
    Saprobes (saprobic microorgansims)
  11. What is the definition of osmosis, diffusion and active transport?
    • These 3 are all transportation mechanisms to get nutrients across a cell membrane and into a cell.
    • Osmosis - diffusionof water across selectively permeable membrane in the direction of lower water concentration. passive transport requires no energy
    • Diffusion- The dispersal of molecules, ions, or microscopic particles propelled down a concentration gradient by spontanteous random motion to achieve uniform distribution
    • Active transport - nutrient transport method that requires carrier proteins in the membrances of living cells and expenditure of energy
  12. What is endocytosis?
    • the process of carrying particles into cells.
    • 2 types.
    • 1. phagocytosis - uses pseudopods to engulf particles
    • 2. pinocytosis - use vesicles called, microvilli, oil fuses with membrane and are released into the cell.
  13. What is facillitated diffusion?
    the passive movement of a substance across a plasma membrane from an area of lower concentration utilizing specialized carrier proteins
  14. Definition of binary fission aka transverse fission?
    the formation of two new daughter cells of approx. equal size as the result of parent cell divison
  15. Define generation time?
    • Time required for complete fission cycle
    • from parent cell to 2 new daughter cells, calso called double timing.
  16. Know the stages/phases of the microbial growth curve, what each phase represents? (is growing more then its dying, opposite or the same)
    Lag->exponetial growth->stationary->death->final outcomes vary from culture
  17. Chemical reactions in microbes are called?
    • enzymes are catalyst for anabolism - synthetic reaction that converts small molecules into big one
    • catabolism - chemical breakdown of complex compounds into simpler units to be used in cell metabolism, large molecules are degraded
    • metabolites are created from anabolism and catabolism process
  18. Bacteria cell walls are made of what?
  19. Peptioglycan are made of two units, nag and nam. When you break this down, what is this called?
  20. What are enzymes?
    • protein biocatalyst that facilitates metabolic reactions
    • speeds up reactions by lowering the energy required
    • are resusable and do not degrade
    • acts on specific molecule or substrate
  21. When you make a amino acid from protein what is it called?
  22. What is an apoenzyme?
    the protein part of an enzyme, as opposed to the nonprotein or inorganic factors
  23. What is a holoenzyme?
    An enzyme complete with its apoenzyme and cofactors can be organic called coenzymes or inorganic (metal ions). These are needed for the enzyme to become functional.
  24. What is a coenzyme? what do they do? what helps them to work better?
    • a complez organic molecule
    • operates in conjunction with an enzyme and serves as a transient carriers of specific atoms or functional groups during metabolic reactions
    • most common component are vitamins
  25. When you have enough enzymes to operate your body, what happens?
    enzyme repression starts
  26. When you go through metabolisms, when you operate your body, where do the electrons go? what molecule do they produce?
  27. What is the final electron acceptor for cellular respiration?
    • o2 is the final step by accepting the electrons and H. water produced. this is an example of aerobic respiration.
    • this all takes place along the electronic transport system
  28. In bacteria, where is the electron transport chain/system located?
    cell membrane
  29. In what part/phase in cellular respiration where ATP is made?
    ATP is made in the third stage via oxidative phosphoryation of aerobic respiration
  30. When you have full oxygen, and you completely break down sugar, how much ATP is made?
    38 ATP, pg 238
  31. When you do not have oxygen, you go through anerobic respiration, what chemicals in your body can be used to accept electrons?
    • NO3, NO2, carbonates, sulfates.
    • Uses O2 containing ions instead of O2 as a final electron acceptor, fermentation is an example
  32. Cyanide kills people, why? How does it do it?
    Blocks cytochrome oxidase thereby terminating aerobic respiration but it harmless to the bacteria