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reasons why media could be a problem
content images that include violence, racism and sexism; highly controlled process of dissemination; creates an unequal advantage for some social groups.
Functionalist perspective on media
The media serves as a connection between individuals, community, and nations.
different technological processes that facilitate communication between the sender of the message and the receiver of the message.
term used by Emile Durkheim--set of shared norms and beliefs in a society
functionalist (negatives) on social media
- link between media-violence and development of aggression
- pop culture undermines education
- link between watching tv and poor health
conflict perspective on media
- Those who control media are the elite which limits the variety of messages
- goal is to make profits--large role in managing consumer demand
Largest media companies-US
- AOL time warner
- G.E. (general electric)
- Liberty Media
- traditionally, independent institutional source of political and social power that monitors actions of other powerful institutions
- conflict: those who control media can manipulate the message
feminist perspective on media
media either exploits women with stereotypes that disregard their intelligence or completely exclude them
Interactionist perspective of media
- "how media defines social reality"
- mass media defines what is newsworthy while shaping public agendas by influencing peoples thoughts and in particular what is considered a social problem.
- content is regulated by federal standards (FCC)
- Family Hour: generally before 8 p.m. "family friendly" programs only
- foul language during family hour increased 94.8% between 1998-2002
- gap separating those who have new forms of technology and those who do not
- less than 10 percent of the world's population uses internet
Problems due to digital divide
- chain of causality: lack of access to internet harms one's opportunities in life
- inequality based on income, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity
Internet abuse and addiction
- excessive and nonproductive use of the internet.
- 5 types of addiction: cybersexual addiction, cyber-relationship addiction, net compulsions(gambling, shopping) ,information overload, computer addiction ( computer game playing)
Big Brother is watching
- consumer privacy is a major issue
- websites track personal info and online activities
- social media scrutinized for use of user info
problem with television
- individuals in industrialized world spent avg. of 3 hours per day watching tv
- children spend avg. 6 hours or more on various media
Federal Communications Commission and the Telecommunications Act of 1996
- FCC was established on 1934
- regulates radio, Tv, wire, satellite, and cable
educational approach that seeks to give media users a greater freedom and choice by teaching them how to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce media
the form of communication that transmits messages, tells stories, structures learning, and constructs a "reality" about the world
Construction of reality
media construct our culture, which involves trade-offs
media use identifiable production techniques such as: camera angles, editing, sound effects, colors and symbols, etc
- media contain ideological and value messages
- ask: what kinds of value messages does this media promote
- media are commercial and business interests
- ask: who or what paid for this media? what are commercial motives behind this media?
- individuals construct their own meaning of media
- ask: what meanings do YOU find in this media?
- commercials and other mutlimedia experiences operate primarily at an emotional level and are usually designed to transfer the emotion from one symbol or lifestyle onto another
- ask: What emotions does this media tap?
tv runs at 30 frames per second; movies at 24. The conscious mind can process about 8 frames per second; hence, tv and movies tend to keep us from conscious analysis and reflection about individual messages and larger industry contexts
symbolic rhetoric/ techniques of persuasion
symbols, flattery, repetition, fear, humor, words, and sexual images are common and effects techniques of media persuasion