content images that include violence, racism and sexism; highly controlled process of dissemination; creates an unequal advantage for some social groups.
Functionalist perspective on media
The media serves as a connection between individuals, community, and nations.
different technological processes that facilitate communication between the sender of the message and the receiver of the message.
term used by Emile Durkheim--set of shared norms and beliefs in a society
functionalist (negatives) on social media
link between media-violence and development of aggression
pop culture undermines education
link between watching tv and poor health
conflict perspective on media
Those who control media are the elite which limits the variety of messages
goal is to make profits--large role in managing consumer demand
Largest media companies-US
AOL time warner
G.E. (general electric)
traditionally, independent institutional source of political and social power that monitors actions of other powerful institutions
conflict: those who control media can manipulate the message
feminist perspective on media
media either exploits women with stereotypes that disregard their intelligence or completely exclude them
Interactionist perspective of media
"how media defines social reality"
mass media defines what is newsworthy while shaping public agendas by influencing peoples thoughts and in particular what is considered a social problem.
content is regulated by federal standards (FCC)
Family Hour: generally before 8 p.m. "family friendly" programs only
foul language during family hour increased 94.8% between 1998-2002
gap separating those who have new forms of technology and those who do not
less than 10 percent of the world's population uses internet
Problems due to digital divide
chain of causality: lack of access to internet harms one's opportunities in life
inequality based on income, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity
Internet abuse and addiction
excessive and nonproductive use of the internet.
5 types of addiction: cybersexual addiction, cyber-relationship addiction, net compulsions(gambling, shopping) ,information overload, computer addiction ( computer game playing)
Big Brother is watching
consumer privacy is a major issue
websites track personal info and online activities
social media scrutinized for use of user info
problem with television
individuals in industrialized world spent avg. of 3 hours per day watching tv
children spend avg. 6 hours or more on various media
Federal Communications Commission and the Telecommunications Act of 1996
FCC was established on 1934
regulates radio, Tv, wire, satellite, and cable
educational approach that seeks to give media users a greater freedom and choice by teaching them how to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce media
the form of communication that transmits messages, tells stories, structures learning, and constructs a "reality" about the world
Construction of reality
media construct our culture, which involves trade-offs
media use identifiable production techniques such as: camera angles, editing, sound effects, colors and symbols, etc
media contain ideological and value messages
ask: what kinds of value messages does this media promote
media are commercial and business interests
ask: who or what paid for this media? what are commercial motives behind this media?
individuals construct their own meaning of media
ask: what meanings do YOU find in this media?
commercials and other mutlimedia experiences operate primarily at an emotional level and are usually designed to transfer the emotion from one symbol or lifestyle onto another
ask: What emotions does this media tap?
tv runs at 30 frames per second; movies at 24. The conscious mind can process about 8 frames per second; hence, tv and movies tend to keep us from conscious analysis and reflection about individual messages and larger industry contexts
symbolic rhetoric/ techniques of persuasion
symbols, flattery, repetition, fear, humor, words, and sexual images are common and effects techniques of media persuasion