Learning and Stuff

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  1. Associative Learning
    • learning that certain events occur together
    • the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant learning)
  2. Classical Conditioning
    a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
  3. Unconditioned Response (UR)
    in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US) such as salivation when food is in the mouth
  4. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
    in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
  5. Conditioned Response (CR)
    in classical conditioning, the learned response to previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
  6. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
  7. Acquisition
    • in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering a response
    • in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
  8. Higher-Order Conditioning
    a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second, often weaker stimulus
  9. Extinction
    • the diminishing of a conditioned response
    • Occurs in classical conditioning when a US does not follow a CS
    • Occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
  10. Spontaneous Recovery
    the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished condittioned response
  11. Generalization
    the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  12. Discrimination
    in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimuli and stimuli that do not signal unconditioned stimuli
  13. Behaviorism
    the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
  14. Operant Conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher
  15. Respondent behavior
    behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus (involved in classical conditioning)
  16. Operant Behavior
    behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
  17. Law of Effect
    Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  18. Operant Chamber
    in operant conditioning research, a chamber (aka a Skinner Box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer
  19. Shaping
    an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
  20. Reinforcers
    in operant conditioning, any even that strengthens behavior it follows
  21. Positive Reinforcement
    • increasing behaviors by presenting a positive stimuli, such as food
    • any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
  22. Negative Reinforcement
    • increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock
    • any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (does not equal punishment)
  23. Primary Reinforcer
    an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
  24. Conditioned Reinforcer
    a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association w/a primary reinforcer (aka secondary reinforcer)
  25. Continuous Reinforcement
    reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
  26. Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement
    • reinforcing a response only part of the time
    • results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
  27. Fixed Ratio Schedules
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
  28. Variable Ratio Schedule
    • in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
    • best reinforcement schedule
  29. Fixed Interval Schedule
    reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specific time has elapsed
  30. Variable Interval Schedule
    reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
  31. Punishment
    an event that decreases the behavior that follows
  32. Drawbacks of Punishment
    • Punished Behavior is suppressed, not forgotten
    • Punishment teaches discrimination
    • Punishment can teach fear
    • Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems
  33. Positive Punishment
    • Administers an aversive stimulus
    • Ex: spanking, parking ticket
  34. Negative Punishment
    • Withdraw a desirable stimulus
    • Ex: Time-out from privileges (such as time w/friends); revoked driver's license
  35. Cognitive Map
    a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
  36. Latent Learning
    learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  37. Intrinsic Motivation
    a desire to perform a better behavior effectively for its own sake
  38. Extrinsic Motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
  39. Observational Learning
    learning by observing others
  40. Modeling
    the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
  41. Mirror Neurons
    • frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
    • The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
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Learning and Stuff
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