Philosophy 320 Ethics Final

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Philosophy 320 Ethics Final
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  1. Thucydides
    • Greek historian. Father of political realism,
    • involved in the conflict between Athens and Melos. Justice isn’t as important
    • as the expansion of power.
  2. Socrates
    • There is more to living then following
    • conventions. Try and find the truth about how to live. Main character in the
    • gorgias. He says main things to gorgias that he asks are you sure about this.
    • He says its better to suffer an evil then to do an evil. He also says if you do
    • an evil you ought to be punished. Notable for his style of Defense Dialectic
    • and critique of rhetoric.
  3. Plato
    • Is the author of gorgias when he teaches that
    • rhetoric is not an art
  4. Aristotle
    • when we think about what it is to be a
    • human being we can learn quite a bit when you think about what it is to be
    • this, that, or the other species.

    •          -also interested in the ecosystem of other species. Started to
    • study the human ecosystem and the need for a grounded community.

    • -Principle of equality, and
    • cardinal virtues.
  5. Gorgias-
    • Socrates says: rhetoric is not an art it is just
    • a flourish, a form of flattery. Gorgias refutes that rhetoric is an art.
  6. Cicero
    • Marcus Tullius Cicero argues that mercy is a
    • virtue, when he says “of all thy virtues none is more marvelous or more
    • graceful than thy mercy” Most influential Roman philosopher.
  7. Augustine-
    • virtue is his own reward while vice is its own
    • punishment. Sees evil as privation, “a distortion of the good”
  8. Thomas Aquinas-
    • aquinas says that misericordia is more important
    • than justice and or generosity. Thinks that a seriously unjust law is a kind of
    • violence. Mercy above all, even justice. Principle of Double Effect, and law
    • based on ethics.
  9. Shakespeare-
    • character Portia praises mercy even above justice
    • for the same reasons as aquinas
  10. Immanuel Kant
    • )- argues that animals are here for us. So its
    • totally fine to eat meat. Common good= kingdom of ends. Distinction between
    • perfect versus imperfect duties. Emphasis on anthropocentrism.
  11. Martin Buber
    • Principle of Respect. “I and Thou,” treat
    • everyone as “Thou,” a familiar friend in an informal manner. Jewish thinker.
    • Treat everyone as as an end, mentioned by MLK.
  12. Peter Singer
    • australian moral professor at Princeton.
    • Introduced the word speciesism which is assigning different rights to different
    • animals based solely on their species.  Says there are some charities that
    • are more important to give to then others.  Is a huge animal right guy.
    • Makes the case that animals have more of a right to live then people with
    • severe special needs.  Wants us to be vegetarians.  Singer also makes
    • the argument that in emergency situations sometimes you need to increase
    • contributions to meet the needs. Conventional morality does not support this
    • and therefore should be changed. Things of equal interest need equal
    • consideration. EX: If a monkey wants the same thing as you, best to flip a
    • coin...against speciesism
  13. Carl Cohen
    • critiques Singers vegetarian schema. He argues
    • that humans not animals can achieve moral insight and can apply this insight to
    • specific situations. Humans act on conscious. Humans even if mentally disabled
    • have the potential for moral agency and animals never have the potential for
    • moral agency.
  14. John Arthur
    • Critiques Singers greater evil rule, and
    • justice versus generosity.  Says that utilitarian principle is wholly
    • forward looking however entitlements are not simply forward looking therefore
    • ger is not a satisfactory approach to distributive justice. He then makes the
    • case that conventional morality is better than utilitarianism. Argues that
    • Singer’s criticism of conventional morality overlooks the role of generosity as
    • an imperfect duty.
  15. John Rawls
    • American Philosopher. Known for political
    • philosophy and stating that the most reasonable principles of justice are ones
    • that almost everyone would accept and agree too from a fair position. He
    • suggests setting up a structure where there are political principles and
    • principles for exchanges between individuals and after that individuals should
    • be free to advance their permissible ends.
  16. Robert George
    • a current philosopher who focuses on natural law.
    • He is currently working on the law and philosophy of marriage. He thinks the
    • most important political issue today is preserving the institution of marriage.
    •  Argues that authentic sexual community is the two in one flesh union,
    • open to life which defines marriage.
  17. Christopher Tollefsen
    • agrees with singer that we all have a moral
    • obligation to use surplus wealth to help those in need. And that we should put
    • a lot of time and thought into giving.   Tollefsen however argues
    • that there is no way to really measure if one charity is better than another
    • for instance art or medical.  So tollefsen say you must give in a way that
    • is effective fair, and in accordance with your own vocations.  He says
    • that charitable giving like all else that one does should collide with ones
    • commitments, relationships and understanding of ones life as a whole. EX: if
    • you have the money to give to either Haiti or to the hospital you have been
    • volunteering at, it is ok to choose the hospital even though Haiti might need
    • it more.
  18. Dante
    • the divine comedy talks about the 9 circles of
    • Hell. Italian poet, vividly portrays the vice of uncontrolled anger.
  19. Alasdair MacIntyre
    • stresses the role of the virtues in helping one to
    • live and make sense of one’s life in terms of a unifying story.
  20. Karol Wojtyla
    • has the natural law view of the axiology of life.
    • Also called the cosmos view. Says that everything in the universe has intrinsic
    • value and instrumental value as well. Bit it is ordered. Some things have
    • higher intrinsic value than others. Advocates the cosmos model as a way of
    • mapping the moral community.
  21. Axiology
    • taking into account perspective and results. Not
    • ignoring either. Teleological is only result centered and deontological is
    • perspective centered. Ethics depends on our values (the study of
    • philosophical  value). Note: intrinsic and instrumental goods are
    • part of Axiology.
  22. Basic good
    • knowledge, friendship, sexual union, beauty, life,
    • happiness.  Basic goods are core elements of what it is to be human being.
    • Something is a basic good only if it is incommensurable, and non-fungible. Must
    • meet three criteria: universal appeal, pass the no price test, an invitation
  23. Deontology
    • the branch of ethics that explores the nature of
    • rights and duties
  24. Intrinsic good
    • when something is good in and of itself. Ie
    • happiness (end)
  25. Instrumental good
    • when something is good for things ie a car is
    • good for getting you places.  (Means)
  26. Human Right
    • -  if there are human rights what is
    • there basis? (most natural law thinkers come to be from trying to figure out
    • human rights.) simply as being a human being I have a claim that is morally
    • grounded.
  27. Right
    • a right is a claim to something against someone
    • that is recognized by law or morality.
  28. Incommensurable
    having no common standard of judgement
  29. Non-fungible
    one cannot be replaced by another without loss
  30. “no price test”
    • referring to basic goods there is no price that
    • can buy them ie you cannot buy true friendship no matter how much you pay.
  31. common good
    • is the whole range of material and cultural
    • conditions that help us to realize the basic goods, together with the basic
    • goods themselves. Or shared human flourishing.
  32. Kants idea for the common good
    • the common good will be achieved when we have a
    • kingdom of ends. And as long as we are working towards the kingdom of ends then
    • we are working towards a good. Advocates the principle of solidarity, and
    • explains that sometimes we must sacrifice a few for the good of the many.
  33. economic democracy
    • gives decision making powers to the larger
    • masses rather than the smaller powerful groups. The economic
    • self-determination needed to make political democracy
  34. eternal law
    • a type of divine wisdom as directing all actions
    • and movements: Aquinas states it is a type of ideal model plan existing in the
    • divine mind.
  35. law: natural vs. positive
    • Positive law- laws are created
    • by government or a king or society

    • Natural Law- laws are from God
    • or some other and presupposed human life. Humans have natural rights that go
    • above and beyond anything else. Rights usually go with basic goods. “intrinsic
    • ethic”
  36. politics-
    • leads to cookery.  The public work which we
    • do together to realize the common good. Easily corruptible.
  37. legal positivism
    • - philosophy of law that emphasizes the
    • conventional nature of law. Socially constructed norms. A law is a law because
    • authority enforces it.
  38. Legal Realism
    • since law is made by man its imperfect up to the
    • discretion of judges and attorneys. Has flaws
  39. Distributive justice
    • -
    • the branch of ethics that tries to work out a fair allocations of goods and
    • resources
  40. Meritarian
    • people who believe that people who work harder and
    • get more money they deserve it. Because they worked harder.
  41. Equalitarian
    • people should only have more money if they have
    • more needs (ie. Special education)  you ought to give more money to those
    • folks because they have more needs.
  42. conventional morality
    • If you do what most pretty good people
    •  mostly do then you are living in accord with conventional morality.
  43. perfect vs. imperfect duty
    • Perfect- a duty that is non
    • flexible ie. Do not steal. It is a perfect duty because if stealing was
    • universalized it would be illogical or impractical. This goes against universal
    • law.

    • Imperfect duty- this is the
    • duty to act only on maxims that we desire ie. If you thought the world would be
    • a better place if you gave to charity then you should give to charity. It is
    • imperfect because you don’t have to follow it every time. For instance if you
    • didn’t have enough money to buy food you would be okay not giving to charity.
    • However it would never be right to steal.
  44. justice vs. generosity
    • justice is a perfect duty, generosity is an
    • imperfect duty.
  45. misericordia
    • direct translation is “you have a heart for misery”:
    • mercy- acquanias says that misericordia is more important than justice and or
    • generosity.
  46. virtue
    • is a strength of character that helps one to act
    • well in a given context.
  47. Cardinal virtue
    • virtue that is very important and has to do with
    • a big part of life.  These are Core Virtues. Things you cant go a day
    • without.
  48. Special virtue
    • virtue that has to do with virtues that are
    • virtues but not core virtues.
  49. courage
    • It explains how a person can defeat their fears
    • for doing what is just in life.
  50. temperance-
    helps a person act well by harmonizing desires
  51. prudence-
    • a prudent person is one who shows practical
    • wisdom. Prudence as in intellectual virtue is the quality of mind that enables
    • us rightly to order the means at hand to the specific ends that we seek. And as
    • a moral virtue it is a quality of the will that lets us govern our wants so
    • that they don’t distort our reasoning.
  52. wisdom-
    • for Aquinas its both an intellectual virtue and a
    • gift of the holy spirit
  53. unity of virtues
    • says that you cant really have a virtue without
    • having all the other virtues too.
  54. filial piety
    • virtue of respect for ones parents or
    • ancestors

    • “natural”- something is natural given
    • the nature of human person, insofar it helps actualize goods of the human
    • person
  55. connaturality
    • innate. One judges rightly about God only by
    • somehow sharing God’s life.
  56. love
    • steady willing of the good of something. Not
    • concerned with qualities we the person
  57. nominal definition

















    • a definition that is just a name a name for the
    • sake of it. Ie the name gold meaning the metal gold. The word is related to
    • what it is.















  58. Real definition
    • picks out something according to what it really
    • is. A chemist could create a real definition for what gold really is
  59. Moral community
    everything that the law and ethics applies too.
  60. Speciesism-
    • assigning different rights values or
    • considerations to individuals based solely on their species. if we take
    • membership in a given species in an exclusive way. If we say only members of
    • our species are members of the moral community.  Or we can think of it as
    • an inclusive way and say that lets check out all the other species and see if
    • they can talk to us. Now we have a stewardship to other human beans and other
    • animals.
  61. Humanism
    • the value and agency of being a human being,
    • individually and collectively. If there are Humans in mars. This theory says
    • those humans are also important.
  62. Metaphysics-
    • a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining
    • the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it.  It
    • looks into the notions of how people understand the world, space, objects,
    • existence and time.
  63. Principle of equality
    • Equals should be treated equally and
    • unequals should be treated unequally, in proportion to their relevant
    • differences.

    • The answer of where the relevant
    • differences come from you have to go back to the fundamental moral standard.

    • Example is that you try and become a
    • walk on for the lakers. The lakers turn you down every time because you cant
    • shoot. You are unequal in relevant effects. (basketball ability)

    • Review of FMS 1. Reason is consistant,
    • 2. It carries a purpose with it. 3. You have to do it yourself.
  64. Natural law
    • We are shaped by our biology and culture, and we
    • know that we could suffer any number of biological disasters, we are also
    • shaped by our biological restriction, and knowing that we still freely choose
    • what we want to do. There is room for some human freedom.
  65. Objections to Natural Law
    • Identification- how are we supposed to know what a
    • natural good really is? What are the criteria for a basic good? Because it is
    • pluralistic there is going to be conflict and situations where there is
    • conflict. You cannot use the principle of negative responsibility because no
    • basic good is better then the other.
  66. Pros to Natural Law
    • - it has universal appeal, it plays a
    • central role in peoples lives, it has no price, you can try to buy and sell it
    • but you don’t really get it if you buy it. Ie. You cant buy friendship.
    •  It has Come and See appeal. If you don’t understand a basic good you just
    • have to experience it once to understand.
  67. Principle of solidarity
    • - The
    • first measure of justice in any society or institution is how it treats the
    • most vulnerable
  68. Principle of double effect
    • there are 4 conditions that have to be
    • met.

    • The initial act is at least okay in
    • and of itself

    • In acting what you intend needs to be
    • good

    • While there is a bad effect. You don’t
    • intend the bad effect only foresee it. It does not itself cause a bad effect.

    • There is a proportionate reason for
    • acting
  69. Principle of subsidiarity
    • the smallest and most local group that can
    • contribute to the common good should do so and have the most freedom to do so
  70. Socratic Maxim
    • know thyself. It is better to suffer evil then
    • to do evil.
  71. Evil as privation
    evil is the absence of good.
  72. Act: transitive & intransitive dimensions
    • Transitive- act affects the object.
    • Intransitive-->action affects the actor. Most important.
  73. Omne ens perficitur in actu
    • grass roots approach. Behind that is a
    • metaphysical approach. Everything realizes its potential in acting. The less
    • you are allowed to act the less you can realize the potential
  74. Eudaimonia
    • greek work that can be translated to happiness
    • talked about by Aristotle. Updated meaning (talked about in class
    • today)-->also translates to excellence.
  75. Principle ofsufficient reason
    • for ever state of affairs and every event there is a cause
    • and an explanation for that state of an event.
  76. Intelligibility of nature
    • Nature is intelligible and not absurd. Nature
    • has much to teach us.
  77. Aquinas balance
    • balance
    • between those who are close to you and those who are in need.

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