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ming china dates
what is noteworthy about Ming
porcelain, silk, tributary system, bureaucracy and examination system, imperial court, formally institutionalized though was long ago present
Dates for Yuan dynasty
Qing dynasty dates
what contributed to the fall of the Yuan
famine, plague, demographic disruption, mishandling of political affairs by last Yuan rulers "loss of mandate of heaven" which gave rise to serious uprisings in southern China, religious overtones (red Turbans)
who is Zhu YuanZhang
a Buddhist monk of peasant origins who rose b/c of his superbly intelligent and effective military conquest, took over Nanjing in 1356, defeated other rebel armies and declared himself emperor 1368 (15 years of anarchy and civil war)
emperor during Ming dynasty, taking advantage of China's greater military strength to destroy threats to national security and took over weaker neighbors, and demonstrated Chinese power in far away lands through Zenghe's voyages
post hoc ergo propter hoc
big attempt/big endeavour, whose righteousness is ultimately only able to be judged after the event
mandate of heaven
concerning the legitimacy predicated on the conduct of the ruler in question. heaven would bless the just ruler. The fact that ruler is being overthrown means he lost the Mandate of Heaven
what are the five confuscian relationships
- emperor and subject
- father and son
- older sibling to younger
- husband and wife
- friend to friend.
who is Han Feizi
280-233 BC, heavily influenced by Qin Shi Huangdi, his school became known as Legalism.
who is laozi
6th century BC, author of Daodejing (teacher of the Dai, the way). Proponent of Wuwei, a spiritually inspired sense of "doing nothing"; reliant on everyone being in a heightened meditative state, seeking common good and not acting out of negative self interest.
after the black plague and the fall of the Yuan dynasty what changed about trade?
- Eurasian trade revived strongly in the 1400's after collapsing in the wake of the Black Death during the 1300s
- maritime trade in indian ocean rebounded
- europeans remained minor players in trade system, b/c they had little to offer in terms of good and geographically isolated
- portuguese (explored African coast and made way to India via the souther tip of Africa), and Spanish kingdom attempted to reach Asia in other ways (Columbus trying to go way of atlantic ocean)
when did the Japanese Civil War break out and who were they between?
- 1467 and they wre between the armies and allies of two clans (Hosakawa and Yamana)
- -fighting takes place around Kyoto and then spreads to other provinces
when and how did the Japanese Civil War end?
ended with the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, which had come about through the successes of the three warlords: oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Layasu
what is daimyo
the lord for whom the samurai fight, local or regional military commanders and administrators
what is the shogun
the chief daimyo; the military leader, above the shogun is the emperor
what are the dates for Oda Nobunaga?
1534-1582 helped with the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate
what are the dates for Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Who is Tokugawa Leyasu
what's a bakufu
most successful leader of military coalitions became shogun, set up a bakufu (military regime or shogunate)
what is Gekokujo
the lower topples the upper (civil war era 1467-1568)
what are the four power spheres in Japan
- hereditary monarch/emperor
- powerful local lords
- religious institutions
- serf/peasant villages
what are the four classes of people?
which are the outcastes of Japanese society?
- Hinin: those involved in entertainment industries
- ronin: lordless samurai
- eta: outcastes
what is the Enryakuji on Mt Hiei
Buddhist temple: places of solace and retirement for samurai and courtesans; movement from devout believer not harming anything to ordained warrior to outlaws.
what was distinctive about ODA nobunaga's reign?
- vision to bring all of Japan under a single sword
- military conquest through alliances and superior technology (muskets)
- main foe was militant buddist communities, and he had no respect for traditional religion
- -legitimacy was solely based on military power
what was significant about Toyotomi Hideyoshi's reign?
- Military conquest westeward to Kyushu (later eastward then invaded Korea (1590's)
- effective administrator
- resourceful in his use of pageantry, substantiating a sense of peace
who defeated the invading hideyoshi army?