Pathophysiology

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RNnrod123
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251510
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Pathophysiology
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2013-12-26 17:48:40
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pathophysiology
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  1. Growth Hormone
    (GH, somatotropin)
    source: pituitary - anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)

    stimulates protein synthesis
  2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    (ACTH)
    source: adenohypophysis

    stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete primarily cortisol
  3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone 
    (TSH)
    source: adenohypophysis

    stimulates thyroid gland
  4. Follicle-stimulating hormone
    (FSH)
    source: adenohypophysis

    • women: stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and estrogen secretion
    • men: stimulates sperm production
  5. Luteinizing hormone
    (LH)
    source: adenohypophysis

    • women:stimulates maturation of ovum and ovulation
    • men: stimulates secretion of testosterone
  6. Prolactin 
    (PRL)
    source: adenohypophysis

    stimulates breast milk production during lactation
  7. Antidiuretic hormone
    (ADH, or vasopressin)
    source: pituitary posterior lobe, neurohypophysis

    increases reabsorption of water in kidney
  8. Oxytocin
    (OT)
    source: neurohypophysis

    • stimulates contraction of uterus after delivery
    • stimulates ejection of breast milk during lactation
  9. Insulin
    source: pancreas - beta cells of islets of Langerhans

    • transport of glucose and other substances into cells
    • lowers blood glucose level
  10. Glucagon
    Source: pancreas - alpha cells

    • glycogenolysis in liver
    • increases blood glucose level
  11. Parathyroid hormone
    (PTH)
    source: parathyroid gland

    increases blood calcium level by stimulating bone demineralization and increasing absorption of Ca++ in the digestive tract and kidneys
  12. Calcitonin
    source: thyroid gland

    decreases release of calcium from the bone to lower blood calcium level
  13. Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
    source: thyroid gland

    increases metabolic rate in all cells
  14. Aldosterone
    source: adrenal cortex

    increases sodium and water reabsorption in the kidney
  15. Cortisol
    source: adrenal cortex

    • anti-inflammatory and decreases immune response
    • catabolic effect on tissues; stress response
  16. Norepinephrine
    source: adrenal medulla

    general vasoconstriction
  17. Epinephrine
    source: adrenal medulla

    • stress response
    • visceral and cutaneous vasoconstriction
    • vasodilation in skeletal muscle
    • increases rate and force of heart contraction
    • bronchodilation
  18. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    • - results from insufficient insulin, leading to high blood glucose levels & mobilization of lipids.
    • - more common in Type 1 DM.
    • - usually develops over a few days & may be initiated by an infection or stress, which increases the demand for insulin in the body. May also result from an error in dosage or overindulgence in food or alcohol.
    • - s/s are related to dehydration, metabolic acidosis & electrolyte imbalances
    • - dehydration signs: thirst; dry, rough oral mucosa; warm, dry skin. Rapid, deep respirations (Kussmaul's) & acetone breath (sweet, fruity smell).
    • - metabolic acidosis develops as ketoacids bind w/ bicarbonate ions in the buffer, leading to decreased serum bicarbonate levels and decreased serum pH. As dehydration progresses, renal compensation is reduced, acidosis becomes decompensated, and serum pH falls, resulting in loss of consciousness.
    • - Electrolyte imbalances include imbalances of sodium, potassium, & chloride. Signs include primarily abdominal cramps, N/V, as well as lethargy & weakness. Actual serum values of electrolytes may be misleading because the proportion of water lost can affect the serum level even though the electrolytes were lost in the urine. Serum sodium is often low, but the potassium concentration may be elevated because of acidosis. If the condition remains untreated, CNS depression develops owing to acidosis & dehydration, leading to coma.
  19. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC)
    • - develops more frequently in patients w/ Type 2 DM
    • - often older patient is an older person with an infection or one who has overindulged in carbohydrates, thereby using more insulin than anticipated.
    • - hyperglycemia & dehydration develop because of relative insulin deficit, but sufficient insulin is available to prevent ketoacidosis. Therefore, the condition may be difficult to diagnose initially.
    • - severe cellular dehydration results in neurologic deficits, muscle weakness, difficulties with speech & abnormal reflexes.
  20. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    • - more severe
    • - occurs more frequently in children & adolescents
    • - genetic factor; insulin deficit results from destruction of pancreatic beta cells in an autoimmune reaction, resulting in an absolute deficit of insulin in the body & requiring replacement therapy
    • - acute complications such as hypoglycemia or ketoacidosis are more likely to occur in Type 1
    • - major factor predisposing to strokes (CVA), heart attacks, peripheral vascular disease, & amputation, kidney failure & blindness
  21. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • - age at onset: older, but also younger adults
    • - onset: insidious
    • - etiology: familial, lifestyle & environmental factors, obesity
    • - body weight: obese
    • - plasma insulin level: decreased or normal
    • - tx: diet & exercise or oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin replacement
    • - occurrence of hypoglycemia or ketoacidosis: less common
    • - decreased effectiveness of insulin or a relative deficit of insulin. This abnormality may involve decreased pancreatic beta cell production of insulin, increased resistance by body cells to insulin, increased production of glucose by the liver, or a combination of these factors.
    • - may be controlled by adjusting the need for insulin by: regulating dietary intake, increase use of glucose (exercise), reducing insulin resistance, stimulating the beta cells of the pancreas to produce more insulin
    • - higher prevalence in African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans
  22. Cushing's Syndrome
  23. Hypothyroidism
  24. Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone Syndrome
  25. Diabetes Insipidus
  26. Hyperthyroidism
  27. Iron-deficiency Anemia
  28. Pernicious Anemia
  29. Sickle-Cell Anemia
  30. Colorectal Cancer
  31. Diverticular Disease
  32. Peritonitis
  33. Appendicitis
  34. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn's & Ulcerative Colitis (UC)
  35. Celiac Disease
  36. Acute Pancreatitis
  37. Liver Cancer
  38. Cirrhosis
  39. Hepatitis
  40. Gastric Cancer
  41. Peptic Ulcers
  42. Acute & Chronic Gastritis
  43. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  44. Esophageal Cancer
  45. Hodgkin's & non-Hodgkin's lymphomas
  46. Acute & Chronic Leukemia
  47. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
  48. Hemophilia A
  49. Polycythemia Vera
  50. Burns
  51. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
  52. HIV-AIDS
  53. Kaposi's Sarcoma
  54. Acute Pain
  55. Chronic Pain
  56. Headache
  57. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
  58. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  59. Malignant Melanoma
  60. Psoriasis
  61. Scleroderma
  62. Cellulitis
  63. Herpes Simplex
  64. Herpes Zoster
  65. Scarring vs. healing: keloid formation
  66. Fractures
  67. The healing process in bones
  68. Osteomyelitis
  69. Compartment Syndrome
  70. Fat emboli
  71. Common bone tumors
  72. Sprain vs. strain
  73. Osteoarthritis
  74. Gout
  75. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  76. Cancer of testes & prostate
  77. Osteoporosis
  78. Language disorders: Aphasia: Receptive (sensory) & Expressive (Motor) Aphasia
  79. Intracranial Pressure (ICP): vital signs & changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  80. Brain herniation
  81. Brain tumors
  82. TIA
  83. Stroke
  84. Cerebral Aneurysm
  85. Meningitis
  86. Encephalitis
  87. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
  88. Epileptic Seizures
  89. Multiple Sclerosis
  90. Parkinson's disease
  91. Alzheimer's disease
  92. Glaucoma
  93. Cataract
  94. Macular degeneration
  95. Otitis
  96. Meniere's Syndrome
  97. Third-spacing: e.g. edema, ascites, pleural effusion, hypoalbuminemia
  98. Sodium Imbalance: Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia
  99. Potassium Imbalance: Hypokalemia & Hyperkalemia
  100. Calcium Imbalance: Hypocalcemia & Hypercalcemia
  101. Phosphate & Chloride Imbalance
  102. Respiratory Acidosis
  103. Respiratory Alkalosis
  104. Metabolic Acidosis
  105. Metabolic Alkalosis
  106. Pneumonia
  107. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
  108. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  109. Asthma
  110. Emphysema
  111. Chronic Bronchitis
  112. Pulmonary Embolism (PE)
  113. Pulmonary Edema
  114. Lung Cancer
  115. Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
  116. Pyelonephritis: acute & chronic
  117. Glomerulonephritis: acute & chronic
  118. Nephrotic Syndrome
  119. Renal Cancer
  120. Acute & Chronic Renal Failure
  121. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Arteriosclerosis & Atherosclerosis
  122. Angina Pectoris
  123. Myocardial Infarction
  124. Hypertension (HTN)
  125. Cardiac Arrhythmias
  126. Heart Failure
  127. Shock

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