Equine Infectious Diseases Part II

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Author:
Tiffanymiles90
ID:
251513
Filename:
Equine Infectious Diseases Part II
Updated:
2013-12-07 19:41:45
Tags:
Equine diseases infectious
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Description:
Tetanus, Equine Infectious Anemia, EIA, EPM, Strangles,
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  1. What it Tetanus Caused by?
    Bacteria - Cholstridium Tetani
  2. How is Tetanus transmitted?
    Puncture wounds
  3. How does the tetnus bacteria cause "lockjaw"?
    Neurotoxins are released by the bacteria.
  4. What are the symptoms of Tetanus?
    Locking of facial muscles and jaw,  tail held stiffly up,  stiffly walking, spasms, difficulty breathing.
  5. What is another name for Equine Infectious Anemia?
    Swamp Fever, EIA
  6. How is equine infetious anemia transmitted?
    • Horse and Deer flies
    • Contaminated Equipment
    • Mare to Offspring through blood transusion
  7. What are the 3 stages of EIA?
    Acute- High temperature, weight loss, anemia, weakness, edema, Horse may die within two weeks, May test negative 

    Chrinic -Intermittent fevers, irregular heartbeat, anorexic, weight loss, weakness, edema

    • Inapparent- No clinical symptoms, Found
    • via blood testing
  8. What does the Coggins Test test for?
    EIA  Equine Infectious Anemia
  9. How is EIA transmitted?
    Horse and Deer Flies, Contaminated Equipment

    Mare to offspring through blood transfusion
  10. What is the outcome of EIA?
    • Potentially fatal 30%
    • No cure
    • Horse remains infected for life
    • Horse must be Euthanised or Isolated
  11. What does EPM stand for?
    Equine protazoal Myeloencephalitis
  12. What does Myeloencephalitis mean?
    Inflammation of brain and spinal cord
  13. What causes EPM?
    Protazoa - Scarcocystis neurona
  14. How is EPM transmitted?
    Intermediate hosts (birds, cats, skunks, armadillo) pick up protozoa in contaminated feed and water > die > opossum eats bird carcass > opossum defecates > horse eats contaminated feed
  15. Can a horse spread EPM?
    No,  they are a dead end host?
  16. What does EPM do?
    Attacks central nervous system and spinal cord, causes lesions to form.
  17. What are the Symptoms of EPM?
    Change in behavior, hind end weakness, loss of coordination (worse on one side), head tilt, drooping ear, tail to one side, loss of muscle control/feeling, stumbling, circling
  18. Is EPM treatable?
    yes,  1 year for nerves to heal and be replaced, may never fully recover
  19. What causes Strangles?
    Bacteria -  Strptococcus Equi
  20. What is a common name for strangles?
    Horse Distemper
  21. How is strangles transmitted?
    • Direct contact
    • Very contagious
  22. How long can Strangles live in the environment?
    8 weeks
  23. What lymph nodes are affected by strangles?
    • Retropharyngeal 
    • Submandibular
  24. What are the symptoms of Strangles?
    swelling under jaw, large discharge, discomfort, depression, lack of eating or drinking , fever, rupture of abscesses
  25. What is the outcome of strangles?
    • Less than 5% fatality 
    • 2-3 weeks recovery
    • Antibiotics
  26. What are Bastard Strangles?
    Abscesses form throughout the body
  27. How do you prevent strangles?
    • •Isolation,
    • Fly control

    • •Disinfection
    • of all clothes, brushes, buckets, etc
  28. How long can the horse infect other horses after it has Strangles?
    6 weeks

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