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What it Tetanus Caused by?
Bacteria - Cholstridium Tetani
How is Tetanus transmitted?
How does the tetnus bacteria cause "lockjaw"?
Neurotoxins are released by the bacteria.
What are the symptoms of Tetanus?
Locking of facial muscles and jaw, tail held stiffly up, stiffly walking, spasms, difficulty breathing.
What is another name for Equine Infectious Anemia?
Swamp Fever, EIA
How is equine infetious anemia transmitted?
- Horse and Deer flies
- Contaminated Equipment
- Mare to Offspring through blood transusion
What are the 3 stages of EIA?
Acute- High temperature, weight loss, anemia, weakness, edema, Horse may die within two weeks, May test negative
Chrinic -Intermittent fevers, irregular heartbeat, anorexic, weight loss, weakness, edema
- Inapparent- No clinical symptoms, Found
- via blood testing
What does the Coggins Test test for?
EIA Equine Infectious Anemia
How is EIA transmitted?
Horse and Deer Flies, Contaminated Equipment
Mare to offspring through blood transfusion
What is the outcome of EIA?
- Potentially fatal 30%
- No cure
- Horse remains infected for life
- Horse must be Euthanised or Isolated
What does EPM stand for?
Equine protazoal Myeloencephalitis
What does Myeloencephalitis mean?
Inflammation of brain and spinal cord
What causes EPM?
Protazoa - Scarcocystis neurona
How is EPM transmitted?
Intermediate hosts (birds, cats, skunks, armadillo) pick up protozoa in contaminated feed and water > die > opossum eats bird carcass > opossum defecates > horse eats contaminated feed
Can a horse spread EPM?
No, they are a dead end host?
What does EPM do?
Attacks central nervous system and spinal cord, causes lesions to form.
What are the Symptoms of EPM?
Change in behavior, hind end weakness, loss of coordination (worse on one side), head tilt, drooping ear, tail to one side, loss of muscle control/feeling, stumbling, circling
Is EPM treatable?
yes, 1 year for nerves to heal and be replaced, may never fully recover
What causes Strangles?
Bacteria - Strptococcus Equi
What is a common name for strangles?
How is strangles transmitted?
- Direct contact
- Very contagious
How long can Strangles live in the environment?
What lymph nodes are affected by strangles?
What are the symptoms of Strangles?
swelling under jaw, large discharge, discomfort, depression, lack of eating or drinking , fever, rupture of abscesses
What is the outcome of strangles?
- Less than 5% fatality
- 2-3 weeks recovery
What are Bastard Strangles?
Abscesses form throughout the body
How do you prevent strangles?
- of all clothes, brushes, buckets, etc
How long can the horse infect other horses after it has Strangles?