Critical Thinking Final

Card Set Information

Author:
Melina.gonzales
ID:
251519
Filename:
Critical Thinking Final
Updated:
2013-12-07 19:10:41
Tags:
Philosophy Critical Thinking Final Review
Folders:
Final,Semester,1
Description:
Final
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Melina.gonzales on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are two guidelines for having a sample that is sufficiently representative?
    Size and Variety
  2. Does this argument fail the true premises test or proper form test and why?

    “75% of the respondents stated that
    they believe gun control legislation should be stricter. Out of the 4 people we
    interviewed, only 1 disagreed. Clearly, the majority of the citizenry supports
    gun control.”
    Fails the Proper Form test due to a lack of size or variety
  3. Does this argument fail the true premises test or proper form test and why?

    “Immediately following the tragic
    shooting deaths of several students at the local high school, nearly 80% of
    local  parents stated that they want
    stronger gun laws passed. Our politicians should respond to their concerns.”
    Fails the Proper Form test because the sample is likely biased
  4. Which of the following is NOT a fallacy associated with statistical arguments?

    A. Hasty generalization
    B. Hasty cause
    C. Biased question
    D. Biased Sample
    B. Hasty cause
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. What are the FOUR parts of an analogical argument?
    • Analogues
    • Primary subjects
    • Similarities
    • Conclusory feature
  6. What is an analogue?
    what the primary subject is being compared to in an analogical argument
  7. What is a primary subject?
    What an analogical argument is about
  8. What are similarities in an analogical argument?
    Features shared by the primary subject and the analogue in an analogical argument
  9. What is a conclusory feature in an analogical argument?
    a feature in the conclusion of an analogical argument that is claimed to be a feature of the primary subject
  10. Does this causal argument fail the Proper Form or True Premises test and why?

    “At the local tourist shop, the
    manager noted that the Americans that were shopping here this July tended to
    buy more bathing suits than the Germans that were here back in February.
    Clearly, Americans like swimming more than Germans do….”
    Fails the proper form test because it commits the Fallacy of Hasty Cause
  11. "This antibiotic was prescribed to the patient two days ago and since that time she has shown remarkable improvement. Clearly, it is responsible for her improved health"

    What would we like to know before we accept this conclusion?

    A. Whether or not this is a case of reverse causation
    B. Whether or not this is a coincidence
    C. Whether or not there is a third party event that caused both events
    D. We do not need any further info to draw this conclusion
    B. Whether or not this is a coincidence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. “I think that psychological ailments
    like depression and anger can cause you to get physically sick. I say this
    because I have noticed that people who are suffering from debilitating diseases
    also suffer from depression and anger.”

    a. This argument passes both tests
    b. This argument fails the proper form test because it commits the Post Hoc fallacy
    c. This argument fails the true premises test because I have not gathered empirical evidence
    d. This argument fails the proper form test because it likely commits the Fallacy of Reverse Causation
    d. This argument fails the proper form test because it likely commits the Fallacy of Reverse Causation
  13. “This morning I noticed that many of
    the students on campus were carrying umbrellas. By this afternoon it was
    pouring down rain. I hypothesize that umbrellas cause rain.”

    a. This argument passes both tests
    b. This argument fails the Proper Form test because it commits the Fallacy of Hasty Cause
    c. This argument fails the true premises test because I have not gathered empirical evidence
    d. This argument fails the proper form test because it likely commits the Fallacy of Reverse Causation
    d. This argument fails the proper form test because it likely commits the Fallacy of Reverse Causation
  14. “Yesterday morning I woke up with a
    runny nose and a cough. Today I noticed that I have a fever. I suppose that
    blowing my nose and coughing caused me to have a fever.

    A. This argument fails the proper form test because it likely commits the Fallacy of Reverse Causation
    B. This argument fails the proper form test because it ignores the possibility of Third Party Causation
    C. This argument passes both tests
    D. This argument fails the proper form test because it commits the Fallacy of Hasty Cause
    B. This argument fails the proper form test because it ignores the possibility of Third Party Causation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. In a _______ moral argument, someone argues that:

    Some action causes a particular effect
    That causing this particular effect is wrong
    therefore:
    people should not do the action in question

    The effect of the action will make it good or bad
    Consequentialist
  16. In a _______ moral argument, someone argues that:

    An action has a certain intrinsic feature
    The intrinsic features of an action are all its features except its consequences

    The intrinsic features of the action will make it good or bad
    Deontic
  17. In a _______ moral argument, the conclusion is a statement about the moral evaluation of a person, a statement indicating that someone has a virtue or a vice

    The fact that a virtuous person would or would not perform an action makes it good or bad
    Aretaic
  18. “I know that you are upset with your
    mother right now but you cannot speak to her that way. The Bible tells us that
    we are commanded to honor our mothers and fathers.”

    What sort of moral argument is this?
    Deontic
  19. “If you are no longer interested in
    the person you are dating you should be honest with that person. They would be
    hurt far more if you were dishonest with them or cheated on them, so it is best
    to be completely open and direct.”

    What sort of moral argument is this?
    Consequentialist
  20. Identify the premise(s):

    (a) Scorsese is a better director than Coppola. 
    (b) He has been more consistent and 
    (c) Has received greater critical acclaim.
    B and C are both premises
  21. Identify the premise(s):

    (a) The rain is really pouring, so (b) you should drive carefully, and (c) bring an
    umbrella with you.
    A is a premise
  22. Identify the conclusion (s):

    (a) That dog should be euthanized. (b) It has bitten 3 people already, and (c) the
    neighbors have small children that could be seriously hurt.
    A is a conclusion
  23. Identify the conclusion (s):

    (a) Mr. Turner was seen leaving the scene of the crime. (b) He is almost certainly
    the guilty man and (c) the police will soon figure that out.
    B and C are both conclusions
  24. What are the two types of general arguments?
    Deductive and Inductive arguments
  25. What is a deductive argument?
    Claims that the truth of the premises shows that the conclusion must be true
  26. What is an inductive argument?
    Claims that the truth of the premises shows that the conclusion is likely to be true
  27. Do deductive arguments deal with certainty or probability?
    certainty
  28. Do inductive arguments deal with certainty or probability?
    probability
  29. What two words describe deductive arguments?
    Valid and Sound
  30. What two words describe inductive arguments?
    Strong and Cogent
  31. All dogs have fur. Sparky is a dog. Therefore, Sparky has fur.

    Is this argument deductive or inductive?
    deductive
  32. The chocolate cake is gone. Timmy has chocolate all over his face. So, Timmy probably ate the chocolate.
    Is this argument inductive or deductive?
    inductive
  33. What is a counter-argument? (as opposed to a refutation argument)
    Draws a conclusion opposed to the original argument
  34. What is a refutation argument? (as opposed to a counter-argument)
    Draws the conclusion that another argument fails the true premises of the proper form test.
  35. What is an enthymeme?
    an unstated premise or conclusion
  36. What THREE kinds of statements are often used as premises that can also be assumed true?
    empirical statements, definitional statements, and statements by experts
  37. An automobile is a gasoline powered vehicle with four doors and a 6 cylinder engine.

    What is wrong with this statement?
    Too narrow
  38. A dog is a mammal.

    What is wrong with this statement?
    Too broad
  39. A dog is not a cat.

    What is wrong with this statement?
    relies on negation
  40. What is the extension of a class?
    Collection of things in the class
  41. What is the intension of a class?
    The collection of features that all of the members of the class have in common
  42. What is a genus?
    A group of which the thing being defined is a member
  43. What is a species?
    The feature or features that set the particular thing apart from other things in a genus
  44. When is the meeting?
    It is scheduled for this afternoon

    Is this an example of vagueness or ambiguity?
    Vagueness
  45. HEADLINE: "Local girl wins first prize in dog show"

    Is this an example of vagueness or ambiguity?
    ambiguity
  46. What are the FIVE ways to diagram an argument?
    • Simple
    • Serial
    • Divergent
    • Convergent
    • Linked
  47. What is the difference between a convergent and a divergent argument?
    • A divergent argument has a single premise that supports multiple conclusions.
    • convergent argument has independent premises that support a single conclusion.
  48. What is the difference between a convergent and a linked argument?
    • convergent argument has independent premises that support the same conclusion.
    • linked argument has premises that are dependent on each other to support the conclusion.
  49. You really should set aside time to study for the final exam. If you don’t study there is no way you will do well and you need to do well on this assignment to pass the course.

    What type of argument diagram would this be?
    Linked
  50. What is the fallacy of hasty generalization?
    the sample is too small
  51. What is the fallacy of a biased sample?
    undercoverage or overcoverage
  52. What is the fallacy of a biased question?
    questions are worded persuasively to get a certain response
  53. What is the easy target fallacy?
    someone makes an inaccurate claim about the view held by someone else, argues that the inaccurately described view is false, and asserts that this argument shows that the accurate view is false
  54. What is the appeal to popularity fallacy?
    someone argues that a view is true on the grounds that it's popular
  55. What is the appeal to novelty fallacy?
    someone argues that a statement is true because people have believed it for a short time
  56. What is the appeal to tradition fallacy?
    someone argues that a statement is true because people have believed it for a long time
  57. What is the ad hominem fallacy?
    when someone attacks a person instead of arguing against the view the person asserts
  58. What is the appeal to ignorance fallacy?
    when a statement is claimed to be true because it hasn't been shown to be false
  59. What is the begging the question fallacy?
    when the premise of an argument is the same as the conclusion of an argument
  60. What is the post hoc fallacy?
    when someone argues that something is caused by something else because it came after

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview