Abnormal Psychology final exam

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Abnormal Psychology final exam
2013-12-07 17:36:29
Abnormal psychology final exam
abnormal psychology final exam
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  1. psychological dysfunctioning of an individual does not occur in isolation
    • it is influenced- sometimes caused by societal and social factors
    • affects the lives of relatives, friends, and acquaintances
  2. clinical scientists and practitioners do not conduct their work in isolation
    they are affecting and being affected by other institutions of society
  3. two social institutions have a particularly strong impact on the mental health profession
    • legislative and judicial system
    • also called the legal field
  4. two distinct aspects of the relationship between the legal field and the mental health profession
    • mental health professionals often play a role in the criminal justice system (psychology in law)
    • the legislative and judicial systems act upon the clinical field regulating certain aspects of mental health care (law in psychology)
  5. forensic psychology
    intersection between the mental health field and the legal and judicial systems
  6. how do clinicians influence the criminal justice system
    • to arrive at just and appropriate punishments the courts need to know whether defendants are responsible for committing crimes and capable of defending themselves in court
    • people who suffer from severe mental instability may not be responsible for their actions or be able to defend themselves in court
    • these determinations are guided by the opinions of mental health professionals
  7. what happens to people who are judged to be mentally unstable
    • usually sent to a mental institution for treatment
    • criminal commitment
  8. forms of criminal commitment
    • mentally unstable at time of the crime
    • mentally unstable at the time of trial
  9. mentally unstable at time of the crime
    if found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) committed until improved enough to be released
  10. mentally unstable at time of trial
    committed until competent to stand trial
  11. the judgements of mental instability have stired many arguments
    • some consider judgements loopholes
    • others argue that a legal system cannot be just unless it allows for extenuating circumstances such as mental instability
  12. Insanity
    • is a legal term
    • defendant may have a mental disorder but may not qualify for legal definition of insanity
    • original definition can be traced to the 1843 murder case of Daniel M Naghten in England
  13. M Naghten Test
    stated that experiencing a mental disorder at the time of a crime did not by itself mean that the person was insane, the defendant also had to be unable to know right from wrong
  14. irresistible impulse test
    • found in late 19th century
    • test emphasized the inability to control one's action
    • fit of passion defense
  15. the durham test
    people were not criminally responsible if their unlawful act was the product of mental disease or defect
  16. The American Law institute test
    • found in 1955
    • american law institute developed a test that combined aspects of the M'Naghten irresistible impulse and the Durham test
    • held that people are not criminally responsible if at the time of the crime they had a mental disorder or defect that prevented them from knowing right or wrong or from being able to control themselves and to follow the law
    • criticized for being too liberal
  17. In 1983 the American Psychiatric association recommended a return to
    M' Naghten

    • this test now is used in all cases tried in federal courts and in about half of state courts
    • more liberal ALI standard is still used in remaining state court, save 4, which have essentially eliminated the insanity plea altogether
  18. about ____ of defendants acquitted by reason of insanity qualify for a diagnosis of schizophrenia
    • two thirds
    • vast majority have a history of past
    • about 50% are caucasian
    • about 86% are male
    • about 65% of cases involve violent crime of some sort
    • close to 15% of those acquitted are accused specifically of murder
  19. criticisms of the insanity defense
    • one concern is the fundamental difference between the law and the science of human behavior
    • law assumes that individuals have free will and are generally responsible for their actions
    • in contrast several models of human behavior assume that physical and psychological forces act to determine the individuals behavior
    • second criticisim points to uncertainty of scientific knowledge about abnormal behavior
    • largest criticism is that defense allows dangerous criminals to escape punishment
    • number of such cases is small less than 1 in 400
  20. during most of US history a successful insanity pleas amounted to ....
    a long term prison sentence
  21. today a successful insanity plea amounts to....
    offenders are being released earlier and earlier as a result of the increasing effectiveness of drug therapy and other treatments in institutions, growing reaction against extended institutionlization and a greater emphasis on patients rights
  22. guilty but mentally ill
    • a new verdict
    • defendents receiving this verdict are found mentally ill at time of crime but illness was not fully related to or responsible for the crime
  23. guilty with diminished capacity
    a defendants mental dysfunction is viewed as an extenuating circumstance that should be considered
  24. sex psychopath law
    • michigan passed the first one in 1937
    • places sex offenders in special categories
    • Mentally disordered sex offenders
  25. Mentally disordered sex offenders
    • people categorized this way are found guilty of a crime and judged to be responsible but are committed to a mental health facility instead of prison
    • most states have changed or abolished these laws
  26. sexually violent predator
    • states are now less concerned about the rights and needs of sex offenders given the growing number of sex crimes taking place
    • these laws require prison and in addition involuntary treatment
  27. regardless of their state of mind at the time of a crime, defendants may be judged to be mentally incompetent to stand trial
    • this requirement is meant to ensure that defendants understand the charges they are facing and can work with their lawyers to present an adequate defense
    • standard competence was specified by by US supreme court in 1960
  28. what happens when you are judged to be mentally incompetent to stand trial
    • defendant is assigned to a mental health facility until competent to stand trial
    • many more cases of criminal commitment result from decisions of mental incompetence than from verdicts of NGRI
  29. majority of criminals currently institutionalized for psychological treatment are ....
    convicted inmates whose psychological problems have led prison officials to decide they need treatment
  30. decades ago most states required that mentally incompetent defendants be commited to
    • maximum security institutions
    • under current law they have greater flexibility and some defendants are treated on an outpatient basis
  31. how has the legal system influenced clinical practice
    • courts have developed the process of civil commitment which allows certain people to be forced into mental health treatment
    • the legal system on behalf of the state has taken on responsibility for protecting patients rights during treatment
    • the protection extends to patients who have been involuntary committed as well as to those who have sought treatment voluntarily
  32. civil commitment
    • in US large numbers of  people with mental disorders are involuntary committed to treatment
    • typically they are committed to mental institutions but most states also have some form or outpatient civil commitment
    • these laws have long caused controversy and debate
    • involuntary commitment of individuals who are considered to be in need of treatment and dangerous to themselves or others
  33. what type of behavior is found in people who can be civil committed
    • may include suicidal or reckless patients
    • may include patients who put others at risk intentionally or unintentially
  34. civil commitment laws vary from state to state
    • family members often begin the proceedings
    • few guidelines have been offered by the Supreme court
  35. 1979 minimum standard proof
    • supreme court offered this guideline to civil commitment
    • must be clear and convincing proof of illness and of meeting the states criteria for commitment
  36. emergency commitment
    • many states give clinicians the right to certify certain patients a needing temporary commitment and medication
    • requires the agreement of two physicians and or mental health professionals
    • by tradition these certifications ofter are referred to as 2PCs (two physician certificates)
    • length of stay is often limited to three days
  37. in the past people with mental illnesses were less likely than others to commit violent or dangerous acts because of
    mass hospitalizations
  38. what has deinstitutionalization caused
    • people with mental illnesses are becoming more likely to commit violent or dangerous acts
    • although approximately 90% of people with mental disorders are in no way violent or dangerous
    • studies now suggest at least a small relationship between severe mental disorders and violent behavior
  39. judgement of dangerousness
    • required for involuntary civil commitment
    • research suggests that while mental health professionals are very often wrong in making long term predictions of violence, short term predictions- predictions of imminent violence- can be accurate
  40. problems with civil commitment
    • it is difficult to assess dangerousness
    • legal definitions of mental illness and dangerousness are vague
    • civil commitment have questionable therapeutic value
    • some clinicians are beginning to argue that involuntary commitment should be abolished
  41. trends in civil commitment
    • flexibility of involuntary commitment laws peaked in 1962
    • supreme court ruled that imprisoning people who suffered from drug addictions might violate the Constitution's ban on cruel an unusual punishment
    • as the public became aware of these issues states passed stricture standards for commitment
    • today fewer people are institutionalized through civil commitment proceedings than in the past
  42. protecting patients rights
    over past two decades courts decisions and state and federal laws have greatly expanded the rights of patients with mental disorders, in particular the right the treatment and the right to refuse treatment
  43. how is the right to treatment protected
    • when people are committed to mental intitutions and do not receivie treatment the institutions become prisons for unconvicted
    • late 1960s and 1970s large mental institutions were just that
    • some patients and their attorneys began to demand that the state honor their right to treatment
    • several court rulings addressed this issue
  44. 1972 court rulling about protecting the right to treatment
    a federal court ruled that the state was constitutionally obligated to provide adequate treatment to all people who had been committed involuntarily
  45. 1975 court ruling about protecting the right to treatment
    The supreme court ruled that institutions must review case files periodically and that the state cannot continue to institutionalize against their will people who are not dangerous and are capable of surviving on their own or with willing help of responsible family members or friends
  46. 1986 court ruling about protecting right to treatment
    • congress passed the Protection and Advocacy for mental Ill individuals act
    • this act set up protection and advocacy systems in all states and US territories
    • number of advocates are now suing federal and state agencies demanding that they fulfill the promises of the community mental health movement
  47. how is the right to refuse treatment protected
    • during past 25 years the courts have also decided that patients particularly those in institutions have the right to refuse treatment
    • most rulings center on biological treatments including psychosurgery
    • some states have acknowledged a patients right to refuse ECT and or psychotropic medications
    • as the possible harmful effects of these treatments have become known some states have granted patients permission to refuse them
  48. other rights patients have
    • patients who perform work in mental institutions are now guaranteed at least a minimum wage
    • patients released from state mental hospitals have a right to aftercare and appropriate community residence
    • people with mental disorders have a right to receive treatment in the least restrictive facility available
  49. the rights debate
    • people with psychological disorders have civil rights that must be protected at all time, many clinicians express concern that patients rights rullings may unintentionally deprive these patients of opportunities for recovery
    • despite legitimate concerns, it is important to remember that the clinical field has not always been effective in protecting patients rights
    • since clinicians themselves often disagree it seems appropriate for patients, their advocates, and outside evaluators to play key roles in decision making
  50. 4 major areas in which the paths of mental health and legal professions have crossed
    • malpractice suits
    • professional boundaries
    • jury selection
    • psychological research of legal topics
  51. malpractice suits
    • number of malpractice suits against therapists has risen sharply in recent years
    • claims have addressed a number of different issues including patient suicide, sexual activity with a patient, failure to obtain informed consent, negligent drug therapy, omission of drug therapy, improper termination of treatment, and wrongful commitment
    • malpractice suit or fear of one can have major effects on clinical decisions and practice for bettor and for worse
  52. profession boundaries
    • during past several years the legislative and judicial systems have helped change the boundaries that separate one clinical profession from another
    • these bodies have given more authority to psychologists and have blurred the lines between psychiatry and psychology
  53. how have the lines between psychiatry and psychology been blurred
    • 1991- the department of defense set up a training program for Army psychologists to gain prescription-writing privileges (previously the domain of psychiatrists only)
    • the success of the program prompted the APA to recommend that all psychologists be granted permission to take such training courses, two states now grant such privileges
  54. Jury Selection
    • during past 30 years more and more lawyers have turned to clinicians for advice in conducting trials
    • a new breed of clinical specialist-- jury specialists-- has evolved
    • they advise lawyers about which jury candidates are likely to favor their side and which strategies are likely to win jurors support during trials
    • however it is not clear that a clinician's advice is more valid than a lawyer's instincts or that the judgements of either are particularly accurate
  55. two areas that psychologist have developed expertise on that have importance to the criminal justice system
    • eyewitness testimony
    • patterns of criminality
  56. eyewitness testimony
    • in criminal cases testimony by eyewitnesses is extremely influential
    • research indicates that eyewitness testimony can be highly unreliable
    • the events are usually unexpected and fleeting
    • further laboratory subjects can be fooled into misremembering information
    • research has also found that accuracy in indentifying perpetrators is influenced by the method used in identification
  57. patterns of criminality
    • study of criminal behavior patterns and the practice of profiling has increased in recent years and has been the topic of an increasing number of media programs
    • however it is not as revealing or influential as the media and the arts would have us believe
  58. code of American Psychological Association (APA) ethical principles
    • psychologists are permitted to offer advice
    • psychologist may not conduct fraudulent research, plagiarize the work of others, or publish false data
    • psychologists must acknowledge their limitations
    • psychologists who make evaluations and testify in legal cases must base their assessments on sufficient information and substantiate their findings appropriately
    • psychologists may not take advantage of clients and students, sexually or otherwise
    • psychologists must follow the principles of confidentiality
    • exceptions: a therapist in training to a supervisor Tarasoff's duty to protect
  59. which other fields besides the legislative and judicial systems do mental health professionals interact
    business and economic fields
  60. collectively psychological disorders are among the _____ leading categories of work related disorders and injuries in the US
    • 10
    • business world has often turned to clinical professionals to help prevent and correct such problems
  61. two common means of providing mental health care in the workplace
    • employee assistance programs
    • problem solving seminars
  62. Employee assistance programs (EAPs)
    mental health services made available by a place of business, are run either by mental health professionals who work directly for a company or by outside mental health agencies
  63. stress reduction and problem solving seminars
    workshops or group sessions in which mental health professionals teach employees techniques for coping and solving problems and for handling and reducing stress
  64. economic decisions by the government may influence clinical care of people with psychological disorders
    • financial concerns were of primary consideration in the deinstitutionalization movement
    • although government funding has risen for people with psychological disorders over the past five decades that funding is insufficient
    • large economic role of private insurance companies has had a significant effect on the way clinicians go about their work
    • managed care programs and peer review systems have been implemented and criticized by many mental health professionals
  65. techonology has had ______ effects on the mental health field
    both positive and negative
  66. our digital world provides new _____ and ______ for the expression of abnormal behavior
    • triggers and vehicles
    • individuals who grapple for impulse- control problems and or paraphilias
  67. some clinicians believe that violent video games may
    contribute to the development of antisocial behavior, and perhaps the onset of conduct disorder
  68. clinicians also worry that social networking can contribute to
    psychological dysfunctioning in certain cases
  69. research also indicates that today's techonology also is helping to produce new psychological disorders such as
    internet use disorder
  70. internet use disorder
    marked by excessive and dysfunctional levels of texting, tweeting, networking, internet browsing etc.
  71. internet has brought a new exhibitionistic feature to certain kinds of abnormal behavior such as
    posting videos of self cutting
  72. cybertherapy
    • growing as a treatment option by leaps and bounds
    • long distance therapy using skype
    • therapy offered by computer programs
    • treatment enhanced by video game like avatars
    • internet based support groups
  73. problems with cybertherapy
    wealth of misinformation and lack of quality control
  74. survey have found that as many as ____ of therapists have reported being in therapy themselves at least once
    • 84%
    • reasons are largely the same as those of other clients, with emotional problems, depression and anxiety topping the list
    • it is not clear why so many therapist report having psychological problems
    • possible theories include: job stress, increased awareness of negative feelings, biased entry into the field itself
  75. the science and profession of abnormal psychology seeks to understand, predict, and change abnormal functioning but we must not loose sight of the fact that
    mental health researchers and clinicians are human beings living within a society of human beings working to serve human beings
  76. One who systematically gathers information in order to describe, predict, and explain
    abnormality is a clinical:

  77. if you wanted a career in which you focus on detecting, assessing and treating abnormal patters on functioning, you should look into becoming a clinical
  78. the history, values institutions technology and arts of a society make up that society's
  79. The finding that
    syphilis causes general paresis is important because it supports the idea that:

    A)  mental patients should be
    B)  organic factors can cause mental illness.
    C)  antibiotics cannot “cure” viral diseases.
    D)  physicians should be the ones treating mental illnesses.
    B) organic factors can cause mental illness
  80. “Understanding a person's unconscious
    processes is critical in explaining abnormality.” Which model of abnormality
    does this quote MOST closely represent?
  81. Which of the
    following statements would a behavioral therapist be MOST justified in saying?
    A)  Our methods generalize very well from the laboratory to the real world.
    B)  Our treatments work especially well with specific fears and social deficits.
    C)  We not only can treat behavior but explain
    D)  Our methods deal well with the complexity of human behavior.
    its cause or causes as well.
    B) our treatments work especially well with specific fears and social deficits
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. Jamal observed
    his parents' generous behavior throughout his childhood. As a result, he
    developed a positive and generous attitude toward the world. According to the
    behavioral model, Jamal has acquired his lifestyle through the process of:
  83. If a client-centered therapist were treating a very anxious woman, the therapist
    would try to:
    show unconditional positive regard for her statements
  84. a person who is so miserable that he or she can see no reason for living BEST fits which of the following definitions of abnormality
  85. which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively
  86. the stated and unstated rules for proper conduct that a society establishes are referred to as
  87. the fact that some people in the advanced stages of AIDS experience neurological damage that results in the psychological abnormality supports what type of perspective about abnormal psychological functioning
  88. which perspective was supported by the discovery that the symptoms of hysteria (mysterious paralysis) could be induced by hypnosis
  89. the diathesis-stress model of abnormality emphasizes that
    abnormality arises from an interaction between stress and predisposition
  90. Studies of diagnostic conclusions made by clinicians show that:
    A)  they underemphasize information gathered
    early in the assessment process.
    B)  they pay too much attention to some information and too little to other information.
    C)  they don't allow enough of their own
    expectations to enter into the decision.
    D)  they do not allow their own biases to play a
    role in their decisions.
    B) They pay too much attention to some information and too little to other information
  91. Which of the following statements is the BEST example of the biopsychosocial perspective?

    A)  There is one legitimate approach to
    understanding mental disorders.
    B)  Abnormality is best explained by
    sociocultural stresses a person experiences.
    C)  Eclectic approaches fail to take interactions
    of various model
    D)Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences.
    D) Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences
  92. According to ________ the drive to self actualize plays an important part in human functioning
  93. therapies that have received clear research support are called
  94. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (presently DSM-5) was developed by
    The American Psychiatric Association
  95. A friend says to you, “I wonder how likely I am to qualify for a DSM diagnosis in my lifetime.” Based upon survey results, your MOST accurate answer would be (assuming your friend is “typical”):

    A)  “Unlikely; about 10 percent of people would ever qualify for a DSM diagnosis.”
    B)  “Somewhat unlikely; about 20 percent of
    people would ever qualify for a DSM diagnosis.”
    C)  “Pretty likely; about one-third of people
    would ever qualify for a DSM diagnosis.”
    D)  “Likely; almost half of people would ever qualify for a DSM diagnosis.”
    D)  “Likely; almost half of people would ever qualify for a DSM diagnosis.”
  96. Which of the following statements BEST reflects the impact of deinstitutionalization?

    A)  Deinstitutionalization has been positive;
    most people with severe disturbances are still receiving treatment.
    B) Deinstitutionalization has placed many people with severe disturbances
    in jail or on the street and not receiving the services they need.
    C)  Deinstitutionalization is better than
    hospitalization; at least care is consistent and there is no shuttling back and
    forth through different levels of care.
    D)  Deinstitutionalization has worked well and communities have been able to pick up the care of those with severe disturbances and provide effective treatment for most of them.
    B) Deinstitutionalization has placed many people with severe disturbances in jail or on the street and not receiving the services they need
  97. an intense persistant and irrational fear that is accompanied by a compelling desire to avoid the object of fear to the point of interfering with the life of the person is called
    phobic disorder
  98. every once in a while, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of
    panic disorder
  99. Leila always feels threatened and anxious-imagining something awful is about to happen. But she is able to work and care for her family, althrough not as well as she would like. Lelia is probably experiencing
    a generalized anxiety disorder
  100. a person who see life in right or wrong or all or none terms is engaging in
    dichotomous thinking
  101. when someone checks the stove 10 times to make sure it is turned off before leaving in the morning that person is exhibiting
  102. to receive a diagnosis of dysthymic disorder, an individual must have experienced symptoms for at least
    two years
  103. steve is afraid of eating in public, expecting to be judged negatively to feel humiliated. as a result he always makes up excuses when asked out to eat. His diagnosis would Most likely be:
    social anxiety disorder
  104. a person who witnessed a horrible accident and then became unusually anxious and depressed for 3 weeks is probably experiencing
    acute stress disorder
  105. in response to a threat we perspire, breathe more quickly, get goose bumps, and feel nauseated. The responses are controlled by the
    sympathetic nervous system
  106. imagine that you just had a close call while driving but now you feel your body returning to normal. which part of your nervous system is controlling this return to normalcy
    parasympathetic nervous system
  107. the be classified as having a major depressive episode, depression must last for a period of at least
    two weeks
  108. a state of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy, in which individuals have an exaggerated belief in their power describes
  109. Dorian was only 10 miles away when St Helens exploded with one of the largest blasts in history. There was ash and lava everywhere and he was terrified and sure he was going to die. When rescue teams found him a week later he was cold, hungry and scared. More than a year later he still has nightmares and wakes up in a cold sweat. This description BEST fits a
    posttraumatic stress disorder
  110. The study of sexuality that led to a revolution in the treatment of sexual dysfunction and treatment was done by
    Masters and Johnson
  111. a person who experiences vomiting and shaking when he tries to stop drinking alcohol has developed
    withdrawal reactions
  112. abnormalities that are thought to have both biological and psychological causes are
    psychological factors affecting ones medical condition
  113. the drug which when misused would MOST quickly result in dependence or addiction would be
  114. a frequent drug user finds that larger doses of a drug are necessary to produce the same high that much lower doses once produced. the drug user is developing
  115. Which of the following would lead you to suspect a conversion disorder rather than
    medical symptoms?

    A) a great number of accidents and an
    inability to get around in a “blind” person
    B) muscle atrophy in the “paralyzed” body
    C)uniform and even numbness in the “damaged” hand
    D)symptoms consistent with the way the
    neurological system is known to work
    C) uniform and even numbness in the damaged hand
  116. while under the influence of LSD Matilda believes that she can feel the sounds around her. this effect is known as
  117. what is the term for the use of and attraction to inanimate objects as a preferred method of achieving sexual excitement
  118. drinking alcohol during pregnancy can damage the developing embryo and fetus resulting in
    fetal alcohol syndrome
  119. otherwise healthy man reports almost no interest in sexual activity and has had very few sexual experiences in the past several years. the person MOST likely is experiencing
    hypoactive sexual desire
  120. Which of the following people would be MOST likely to cut out sweets, then eliminate more and more types of foods, but not force vomiting?

    A)one experiencing purging-type anorexia
    B)one experiencing bulimia nervosa
    C)one experiencing acute-type bulimia
    D)one experiencing restricting-type anorexia nervosa
    D) one experiencing restricting type anorexia nervosa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. the central feature of bulimia nervosa is
    binge eating followed by a compensatory behavior
  122. a patient in an alcohol rehabilitation center with a history of vitamin B deficiency tells you a detailed story about growing up in the mountains of Tennessee. Later you find out that the person in fact never even visited Tennessee. a day later you visit the patient again and the patient does not recognize you. Most likely the patient is suffering from
    Korsakoff' syndrome
  123. Which of the following is an example of malingering?

    A)experiencing chest pains in response to
    intense stress
    B) enjoying unnecessary medical tests
    C)intentionally faking an illness because
    one likes being a patient
    D)intentionally faking a back problem in order to avoid military service
    D) intentionally faking a back problem in order to avoid military service
  124. a paraphilia is
    a response to a socially inappropriate object or situation
  125. psychosis means
    loss of contact with reality
  126. delia does not display all the full blown schizophrenia symptoms any more. occasionally a shadow of a symptom appears. she is a bit withdrawn and not entirely clear all the time, but she can marginally function in the world. this is an example of
    residual schizophrenia
  127. delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, heightened perceptions, and hallucinations, and inappropriate affect are examples of
    positive symptoms of schizophrenia
  128. the stage of development of schizophrenia marked by deterioration of functioning and the display of mild symptoms is called the
    prodromal phase
  129. the main difference between hallucinations and delusions is that
    hallucinations involve perception and delusions involve beliefs
  130. according to the diathesis stress model of schizophrenia
    people with a biological predisposition for schizophrenia will develop it if certain psychosocial stressors are also present
  131. for the first two weeks after starting college a student cant seem to talk coherently and is generally unresponsive to the moods of other students in the same dorm. soon the student resumes normal patterns of speaking and social interaction. this is an example of
    brief psychotic disorder
  132. poverty of speech, restricted and flat affect, loss of volition, and social withdrawal, are examples of ____ symptoms of schizophrenia
  133. the schizoid personality disorder differs from paranoid personality disorder in that
    those with schizoid personality disorder desire to be alone, those with paranoid personality are alone because of suspiciousness
  134. a middle aged individual shows many of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and at the same time often appears profoundly depressed. the symptoms have lasted almost a year. this is an example of
    schizoaffective disorder
  135. a women has been treated with chlorpromazine for several years. lately she seems to be chewing gum all the time and her arms are always in motion. she has begun to display twitching and facial tics. this is an example of
    tardive dyskinesia
  136. the category of odd personality disorders includes the traits of
    • extreme suspiciousness
    • social withdrawal
    • cognitive and perceptual peculiarities
  137. the MOST important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that
    they are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress
  138. if a person primarily fears close social relationships, one would MOST likely conclude that the person is experiencing
    avoidant personality disorder
  139. an adult has been jailed for the third time for fraud, each time it has been for persuading investors to put money into a phony silver mine.if the adult has received a DSM5 diagnosis, the most likely diagnosis is
    antisocial personality disorder
  140. reese is distrustful of others and reacts quickly to perceived threats. even though he has no evidence he is sure his wife is unfaithful. he finds it almost impossible to forgive those he thinks have wronged him. reese displays characteristics of
    paranoid personality disorder
  141. a child is openly hostile toward her parents, argues with them constantly and will not do anything they say. they cannot controlher. the diagnosis most likely to receive is
    oppositional defiant disorder
  142. when selina sees a report of a train wreck on television, she thinks that it is a sign that she should not take the train to work the next day and so she decides to take the bus instead. if she has a diagnosable personality diorder it would most likely be
    schizotypal personality disorder
  143. when dialectical behavior therapy is used with patients with borderline personality disorder those patients compared to patients receiving other forms of therapy make
    far fewer suicide attempts and are hospitalized less often
  144. if a person primarily fears close social relationships, one would most likely conclude that the person is experiencing
    avoidant personality disorder
  145. a child has repeatedly engaged in shoplifiting and in hitting neighborhood pets with rocks. the child frequently is aggressive and has engaged in an increasing number of fights. the most appropriate diagnosis for this child is
    conduct disorder