Chemistry Final

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Chemistry Final
2013-12-07 17:49:06

General Chemistry Final
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  1. Celsius --> Fahrenheit
    5F = 9C + 16
  2. Celsius --> Kelvin
    K = C + 16
  3. mass number
    the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
  4. average atomic mass
    the atomic mass on the periodic table
  5. cation
    positively charged ion
  6. anion
    negatively charged ion
  7. hydrogen bonding
    • a special kind of dipole-dipole attraction 
    • a very strong intermolecular attraction causing higher than expected b.p. and m.p.
  8. necessary for hydrogen bonding
    molecules have hydrogen directly bonded to oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine
  9. electrolytes
    • formed from solutes that are soluble ionic compounds
    • good conductors
  10. nonelectrolytes
    • formed from non dissociating molecular solutes
    • non conducting
  11. polarity
    • the uneven distribution of electron charge due to unequal sharing of electrons
    • bigger difference means more polarity
    • refers to whether or not a compound is well balanced as far as electronegativity goes
  12. electronegativity
    • the ability of an atom to suck electrons toward it
    • when 2 atoms with different electronegativities come together as a molecule, the difference in their elctronegativity values becomes the dipole (polarity!) moment of the molecule
  13. chemical bonds
    the force that holds one atom in combination with another atom
  14. ionic bonding
    • electrons are considered transferred from one atom (a metal) to another atom (a nonmetal), resulting in cations and anions
    • crystalline solids, high melting point, brittle, poor conductors unless melted, dissolved in water
  15. covalent bonding
    • when 2 or more nonmetals share electrons to gain the octet
    • results in the formation of a molecule
    • low melting/boiling point temps
  16. electron affinity
    • the energy lost of gained when an electron is added to the outer shell of an atom in the gaseous state 
    • the bigger the electron affinity, the more stable it is
  17. When is a compound non polar?
    • 1) There is no polarity within the bonds 
    • i.e. no EN difference
    • diatomic molecules such as N2, F2 etc.
    • OR 
    • 2) the polarity cancels out due to symmetry of BOTH shape and terminal atom type
    • so polarity within the bonds, but symmetry cancels them out
  18. what are the unsymmetrical shapes?
    • a) linear
    • b) trigonal planar 
    • c) tetrahedral
  19. When is a compound polar?
    • A) there is polarity within the bonds
    • AND
    • B) the molecule is un-symmetrical, either by shape 
    • OR
    • different terminal atoms in a symmetrical shape
  20. What are the unsymmetrical shapes?
    • a) bent
    • b) trigonal pyramidal
  21. Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
    1 amu = 1.661x10-24
  22. moles to atoms
    • How many sodium atoms are present in 1.0x10-6 mol of sodium?
    • 6.0x1017 atoms Na 
  23. Atoms to Moles
    • How many mol correspond to 1.0x108 atoms of mercury?
    • 1.7x10-16 mol Hg
  24. Moles to Grams
    • How many grams are contained in 2.35 mol of calcium atoms?
    • 94.2 g Ca
  25. Grams to Moles
    • Calculate the number of mol that corresponds to: 4.24 g H2 & 0.0745 kg Sulfur 
    • 2.11 mol H& 2.32 mol S
  26. Strong Acids and Bases
    when their reaction with water is virtually 100%
  27. Weak acids and bases
    when their reaction with water is much less than 100% complete
  28. Conjugate acid
    the species that is formed when a base accepts a proton
  29. conjugate base
    the species formed when an acid donates a proton
  30. pH of an acid
    • substitute in the molarity given for the [H3O+]
    • pH = -log[H3O+]
  31. pH of a base
    • solve for the [H3O+]. The molarity given is the concentration of [OH-
    • pH = 14 + log[OH-]
  32. Titration of 20.00mL of HNO3 solution requires 24.18mL of 0.1445M KOH solution. What is the molarity of the HNO3 solution?
    • MV=MV
    • (20.00) (M) = (24.18) (0.1445)
    • 20M = 3.49401
    • M = .1747
  33. Oxidizing agent
    • is reduced
    • gains electrons
    • causes oxidation
  34. reducing agent
    • is oxidized
    • loses electrons
    • causes reduction
  35. equilibrium reaction
    • a chemical reaction that does not go to completion
    • after no further obvious change, measurable quantities of reactants and products both remain
  36. reversible reaction
    a process that can occur in both directions; indicated by a double arrow symbol
  37. dynamic equilibrium
    • a situation in which the rate of the forward process in a reversible reaction is exactly balanced by the rate of the reverse process
    • the rate must be the same for equilibrium, not the amount
  38. calorimetry
    the measurement of heat energy changes in a chemical reaction
  39. specific heat
    • the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance 1C
  40. specific heat formula
  41. Boyle's Law
  42. Charles's Law
  43. Combined Gas Law
    PV/T= PV/T
  44. Avogadro's Law
  45. Ideal Gas Law
    • PV=nRT
    • R= 0.0821
  46. Density formula
  47. Types of Radioactivity
    • 1) Alpha
    • 2) Beta
    • 3) Gamma
  48. Alpha particles
    • positively charged and identified as helium nuclei
    • lease penetrative
  49. Beta particles
    • negatively charged and identified as fast electrons
    • small in mass but medium in penetration
  50. Gamma Rays
    • no particles, but very high energy photons
    • interact with matter much less strongly
    • very high penetrating power