Function 5 cardio pulmonary Final

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bradley.knox
ID:
251550
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Function 5 cardio pulmonary Final
Updated:
2013-12-08 17:27:11
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  1. Volume of air inspired or expired during a normal respiration.
    Tidal Volume: 500mls
  2. Amount of air that can be inspired forcefully after the tidal volume. Above and beyond the tidal volume (500ml)
    Inspiratory Reserve Volume: 3000ml
  3. The amount of air that can be forcefully expired after expiration of normal tidal volume
    Expiratory Reserve Volume: 1100ml
  4. The amount of air still in the lungs after most forceful expiration
    Residual Volume: 1200ml
  5. Functional Residual Capacity
    • 2300ml
    • Expiratory reserve volume (1100ml) + Inspiratory reserve volume (1200ml)
  6. Inspiratory capacity
    • 3500ml
    • Tidal + Inspiratory reserve
  7. Vital capacity
    • 4600ml
    • Tidal, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve
  8. Forced Vital Capacity 1 (FVC1)
    How much and quickly you can inspire and expire
  9. Forced Expiratory Volume 1.0
    Amount of air that you can expire in 1 second
  10. Total lung capacity
    5800ml
  11. PO2 level for clinical hypoxia
    PO2 of 60 = 88-90 saturation
  12. Exercise, acidosis, increased temp all shift the oxygen disassociation curve to the _______
    RIGHT
  13. Main form of CO2 in the blood
    bicarbonate
  14. peripheral PO2 at rest
    40mm Hg or 75% saturation
  15. Normal FVC FEV ratio
    4/5
  16. COPD effect on FVC FEV
    • Increased time required for FVC
    • Decreased FEV
    • Decreased FVC ratio
  17. Impaired surfactant production--> difficulty re-inflating Alveoli
    Acute Respiratory disease Syndrome (ARDS)
  18. What type of hypersensitivity if the cause of asthma symptoms
    type 1
  19. how do B2 stimulators work
    Sympathetic stimulation increase synthesis of cAMP which relaxes smooth muscle, stimulate mucociliary escalator, inhibits mast cell degranulation
  20. Venous PO2 of alveoli and RBC in pulmonary capillary network
    • Alveoli PO2 = 104mmHg
    • RBC PO2 = 40mmHg
  21. Venous CO2 pressure in alveoli and RBC
    • PCO2 Alveoli = 40mmHg
    • PCO2 RBC = 45mmHg
  22. Pneumotaxic Center
    • Located in the pons
    • Inhibits inspiratory center activity
    • Inhibits Apneustic center
  23. Keeps inspiratory center in rhythm, located in the pons
    Apneustic Center
  24. Central chemo receptors respond to changes in what
    • Mainly CO2 
    • located in the medulla
  25. what do peripheral respiratory chemoreceptors respond to
    PO2 less than 60mmHg
  26. inflammatory edema and spasm of the larynx
    Croup
  27. Child sits with mouth open and chin thrust forward (Classic presentation)
    Epiglottitis
  28. What microorganism causes epiglottitis
    Hemophilus Influenza Type B
  29. most common cause of bronchiolotitis
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
  30. Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to environmental exposure
    Pneumoconiosis
  31. Pneumoconiosis secondary to cotton dust
    Byssinosis (Brown-Lung disease)
  32. normal PCO2
    35-45 mmHg
  33. Normal HCO3
    22-26mEq/L
  34. pH=7.62
    pCO2= 48 mmHg
    PHCO3= 45
    Metabolic Alkalosis with respiratory compensation
  35. Pericardial effusion associated with bleeding into space (e.g., TB, purulent organism, neoplasm)
    Hemopericardium
  36. Pericardial effusion caused by inflammation of the pericardium, infectious organism, suppurative exudate
    Purulent Pericarditis
  37. Rapid smothering of the heart by pericardial effusion which may end in heart failure
    Cardiac Tamponade
  38. most common type of pericarditis
    Acute fibrinous pericarditis
  39. What type of pain is associated with pericarditis
    Sharp localized pain that is more pronounced when breathing
  40. What causes the first heart sound, when
    Rising pressure in the in ventricles due to initial part of contraction early in systole
  41. What are the normal stroke volume and ejection fraction
    Normal stroke volume is around 70ml which is around 60% ejection fraction
  42. What does systemic blood pressure measure?
    cardiac output X peripheral vascular resistance
  43. What are the five phases of ventricular action potential
    • 0 = Depolarization (+30mv)
    • 1 = Repolarization (K leaks out slowly)
    • 2 = Plateau (K leaks out, Ca leaks in)
    • 3 = Rapid repolarization (K rushes out)
    • 4 = Resting Membrane potential (-90 mv)
  44. Mobitz type II (wenckebach)
    AV nodal block with repeating patterns of elgated PR interval with a drop QRS
  45. Resistance to ejection from left ventricle
    After Load occurs in early systole
  46. what determines preload
    end diastolic volume
  47. What is Frank Starling's Law
    • End-diastolic volume stretches the cardiac muscle fibers, which in turn develop tension for contraction. (2.2-2.4micrometers optimal)
    • Causes an increased preload and increase cardiac output
  48. drop in BP causes a excitatory signal to the cardio control center which increases heart rate causing an increase in BP
    Baroreceptor Reflex
  49. most common cause of bacterial endocarditis
    Streptococcus viridans
  50. mitral and tricuspid regurgitation
    occurs during systole
  51. aortic and pulmonary regurgitation
    occur during diastole
  52. regurgitation taht causes widening of pulse pressure.
    aortic valve failing does not allow for peripheral bp to be maintained
  53. obstruction of aortic flow causing a decrease in stroke volume, decrease in systolic BP
    Aortic valve stenosis
  54. primary cause of aortic valve regurgitation
    rheumatic fever
  55. In what type of heart failure is pulmonary capillary wedge pressure elevated
    Left sided (pressure backs up into lungs from lack of output from left ventricle
  56. how does hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affect the heart?
    if asymetrical it will cause obstruction during systole
  57. how do beta blockers work
    decrease O2 consumption by decreasing heart rate
  58. what type of cardiomyopathy is caused by amyloidosis
    Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  59. what type of ECG wave abnormality can be seen with hypertension
    Large R wave
  60. accounts for 58% of the proteins in the blood
    Albumins
  61. normal percentage of neutrophils
    65%
  62. normal percentage of lymphocytes
    20-25%
  63. 88% neutrophils due to acute inflammation causes what kind of shift
    shift to the right
  64. normocytic anemias
    • Sickle cell anemia
    • Spherocytosis
    • G-6-PD
  65. Microcytic anemias
    • Thalassemias (abnormal a or b hemoglobins)
    • Iron Deficiency
  66. Macrocytic anemias
    • Pernicious anemia (B12/Intrinsic Factor)
    • Folic Acid Deficiency
  67. What type of hemophilia is caused by a defect of factor VIII
    Type A
  68. hemophilia caused by defect in factor IX
    • Type B
    • Christmas disease
  69. Hemophilia caused by a defect in the factor that stabilizes factor VIII
    Von Wildenbrand Disease

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