PSY 312 final questions

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PSY 312 final questions
2013-12-08 16:56:48
final review

review questions
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  1. One major difference between Erikson's psychosocial theory and Freud's psychosexual theory is Erikson's theory emphasizes the role of ______in development
  2. In a historic experiment with Little Albert, John Watson demonstrated that
    children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
  3. Piaget's ideas about cognitive development during infancy and toddlerhood were derived from
    making observations of his own children
  4. Bandura's social learning theory emphasizes the role of __________ in guiding children's responses to particular situations.
  5. Two-year-old Victoria hugs an upset classmate in the same way that her parents hug her at home when she is upset.  According to social learning theory, Victoria likely learned this response to her classmate's distress through____
  6. Vygotsky's theory focuses on
    how culture is transmitted to the next generation
  7. Cross-cultural research stimulated by Vygotsky's theory has shown that
    children in every culture develop unique strengths that are not present in other cultures
  8. At the microsystem level in Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, one might examine the
    interactions between a mother and her children.
  9. In an experiment, the investigator manipulates the ______________ and observes its effects on the ____________
    independent variable; dependent variable
  10. In a ________ design, a group of participants is studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as the participants mature.
  11. In a study examining the development of pretend play, Professor Tomy observed two-, three-, four-, and five-year-olds on one occasion in a specially designed playroom.  The design of this study is ____
  12. The findings of cross-sectional studies that cover a wide age span are MOST likely to be affected by what threats to validity?
    cohort effects
  13. According to research on resiliency, which of the following factors is associated with protection against the damaging effects of stressful life conditions
    social support outside the immediate family
  14. Genes are made up of
    segments of DNA of varying lengths
  15. The crossing over and random sorting of chromosomes pairs during meiosis result in
    incredible variability among offspring
  16. The most common type of multiple births occurs when
    two ova are released from the ovaries and fertilized.
  17. Jim and Joanna are brother and sister, two years apart in age; Louis and Louisa are fraternal twins.  Which pair is genetically more similar?
    Both pairs are equally similar
  18. Identical twins are created when
    a fertilized egg divides into two separate clusters of cells
  19. Down syndrome is most commonly caused by
    failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
  20. Serious diseases are only rarely due to dominant alleles.  This is because
    individuals who inherit these disorders seldom live long enough to reproduce
  21. Why are males more likely to be negatively affected by X-linked inheritance traits
    • 1.  The Y chromosome lacks many alleles that could potentially override a disorder carried on an X chromosome.
    • 2.  Male fetuses are more susceptible to disease and thus more likely to succumb to negative alleles.
  22. Improvement in emotional, social, and motor skills for children with Down syndrome can be attributed to
    early intervention programs
  23. A heritability estimate of .8 for a certain trait suggests that differences in genetic makeup explain ________ of the variation of the trait
    80 percent
  24. Which of the following is true concerning donor insemination and in vitro fertilization?
    More than 50 percent of in vitro procedures result in multiple births
  25. An ethical concern with in vitro fertilization is that
    it may lead to selective breeding
  26. What is true regarding the human genetic code
    Only a small portion of our heredity is responsible for the traits that make us human
  27. Which pair of sex chromosomes is present in males?
  28. Fraternal, or dizygotic, twins
    are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings
  29. If the alleles from both parents are alike, the child is homozygous and
    will display the inherited trait
  30. Polygenic inheritance, in which many genes affect the characteristic in question, is complex, and
    much about it is unknown
  31. What factor increases the risk of bearing a baby with Down syndrome?
    advanced maternal age
  32. Most children with sex chromosomes disorders
    do not suffer from mental retardation
  33. For several decades, donor insemination has has been
    to overcome male reproductive difficulties
  34. Which of the following is used to estimate the likelihood that parents will have a child with a genetic defect?
    a pedigree
  35. Women of advanced maternal age are prime candidates for
    aminocentesis and chorionic villus sampling
  36. What is the most widely used prenatal diagnostic method?
  37. Prenatal diagnosis has led to
    advances in fetal medicine
  38. In a study of internationally adopted children, _________ predicted cognitive and social competence at age 7.
    sensitive maternal care and secure attachment
  39. The family is a network of interdependent relationships, within each person's behavior
    influences the behavior of other family members
  40. When a marital relationship is warm and considerate,
    mothers and fathers are more likely to engage in coparenting
  41. Compared to their higher SES counterparts, lower-SES parents tend to
    emphasize external characteristics, such as obedience, politeness, neatness, and cleaniness
  42. The empowerment that comes from education is associated with
    more equitable husband-wife relationships and a decrease in harsh disciplining of children
  43. Neighborhood resources have a greater impact on
    the economically disadvantaged than on well-to-do young people
  44. In many African societies, newly married couples
    move in with members of their extended family
  45. Collectivist societies value an interdependent self, which stresses
    social harmony, obligations, and responsibility to others, and collaborative endeavors
  46. Compared to other industrialized nations, the United States currently ranks  _______ in childhood poverty.
  47. In the United States, _________ has/have made government hesitant to become involved in family matters.
    cultural values of self-reliance and privacy
  48. The most common type of kinship study compares
    identical twins with fraternal twins
  49. What is perhaps the most serious criticism of heritability estimates?
    They give no precise information on how intelligence and personality develop
  50. Because walking is strongly canalized, it
    takes strong environmental forces to change it.
  51. Due to his athletic skill and interest, 16-year-old Gabriel plays sports year round.  Gabriel's decision to seek out athletic activities is an example of
  52. Dr. Holloway believes that development takes place through ongoing, bidrectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment Dr. Holloway's belief is consistent with
    the epigenetic framework
  53. In a study investigating the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in children, researchers found that
    5-year-olds with both prenatal nicotine exposure and teh DD genetic makeup scored signficantly higher in ADHD symptoms than other groups of children
  54. Between 1970 and 2008, the birth rate for American women in their thirties has
    more than doubled
  55. Radsheda wonders when she will first be able to feel her baby's movements.  You tell her that this should happen by
    the middle of the second trimester
  56. The age of viability occurs sometime between
    22 and 26 weeks
  57. The period of the _______ is the time when serious defects from teratogens are most likely to occur because ________ this time.
    embryo; the foundations for all body parts are laid down during
  58. It is difficult to isolate the precise damage caused by a single illegal drug during pregnancy because
    drug using mothers are often exposed to multiple teratogens
  59. The most well-known effect of smoking during the prenatal period is
    low birth weight
  60. Which of the following is supported by research on alcohol use during pregnancy?
    The defects of FASD children vary as a function of the length and timing of their mother's drinking during pregnancy.
  61. _________ supplementation around the time of conception greatly reduces abnormalities of the neural tube, such as spina bifida and anencephaly.
    Folic acid
  62. Infants born to mothers who delayed prenatal care to the end of pregnancy or who did not seek any at all are more likely to ______  than babies whose mothers received early prenatal care.
    die before birth
  63. Which of the following is true regarding prenatal environments and health in later life?
    Normal range environmental factors affecting a fetus can affect long term health outcomes later in adult life.
  64. ________ is a drug used to treat acne that can cause severe multiple defects if taken during pregnancy.
  65. An Apgar score ______________ indicates that the infant is in good physical condition.
    between 7 and 10
  66. The Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
    heart rate, color, and muscle tone
  67. One of the fundamental beliefs of prepared approaches is that birth is more likely to be problem free and rewarding when mothers
    understand the process of labor and delivery
  68. What is the difference between analgesic and anesthetic use during childbirth?
    Analgesics are given in mild doses to relieve pain, while anesthetics block sensation.
  69. What is true regarding induced labors?
    In the United States, the induced labor rate has doubled over the past decade.
  70. Cesarean delivery
    has become increasingly common in the United States, accounting for almost one-quarter of all births.
  71. _______ is the best available predictor of infant survival and healthy development.
    Birth weight
  72. The ______ reflex helps a breast-fed baby find his or her mother's nipple.
  73. What is the newborn reflex that a caregiver can capitalize on to comfort a fussy baby?
  74. Researchers believe that most newborn reflexes disappear during the first six months due to
    a gradual increase in voluntary control over behavior as the cerebral cortex develops
  75. When bottle-fed babies are given a choice between the smell of a mother's breast who is not nursing, they
    prefer the nursing mother's breast
  76. "Recovery curves" on Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) are effective predictors of
    the child's intelligence during the preschool years
  77. Parents can reduce the likelihood of SIDS by
    removing pillows and blankets from cribs
  78. Infants of mothers suffering from postpartum depression
    exhibit a decreased responsiveness to the environment
  79. The cephalocaudal trend in development means that
    the head region develops before the foot region
  80. At birth, the ________ is/are nearer than any other physical structure to its adult size.
  81. Which of the following provides evidence for early brain plasticity?
    Deficits in preschoolers with brain injuries sustained during infancy tend to be milder than those observed in brain-injured adults
  82. What has research on breast-versus bottle-feeding supported?
    Breast-fed babies have fewer illnesses and allergic reactions than do bottle-fed babies
  83. Baby Jacob's mother is more likely to pick him up when he smiles than when he is fussy.  As a result, the frequency of Jacob's smiles has increased.  This is an example of
    operant conditioning
  84. _______ is a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation.
  85. ________ is a powerful means by which infants can get to know people by matching their behavioral states.
  86. What is an example of gross motor skill?
  87. Parents who compare their children's motor development with standard charts such as the one in the textbook should keep in mind that
    there are large individual differences in the rate of motor progress.
  88. Gibson and Walk's research using the visual cliff indicates that sensitivity to depth first appears around the time that infants begin to
  89. One possible explanation for the high frequency of bedtime struggles in American homes is that
    the stress young children feel when they are required to fall asleep without any assistance
  90. Research shows that infant-parent cosleeping
    often occurs in cultures in which infant sleep problems are uncommon
  91. Body fat peaks around _______ months and _______.
    9; helps infants keep a constant body temperature.
  92. During infancy _______.  These sex differences will ________ during adolescence.
    girls have a higher ratio of fat to muscle than do boys; be greatly magnified
  93. According to Piaget, during _____, children interpret experiences in terms of existing schemes, whereas in _______, old schemes are adjusted and new ones created to make sense of the environment.
    assimilation; accommodation
  94. Two-year-old Viola sees a hyena for the first time during a trip to the zoo and calls it a doggie.  According to Piaget's theory, Viola is most likely ________ the hyena into her dog scheme.
  95. When baby Radsheda reaches for her pacifier, she accidently pushes it under her pillow.  Rather than searching for the pacifier under the pillow, Radshed cries.  One possibility why Radsheda does not search for the pacifier under the pillow is because she has not yet developed
    object permanence
  96. According to Piaget, children's ability to experiment with actions inside their heads in substage six of sensorimotor period makes _____ and _______ possible.
    deferred imitation; make-believe play
  97. The major difference between Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories is that Vygotsky believed taht
    complex mental activities have their origins in social interaction.
  98. According to Vygotsky, which of the following would be within a child's zone of proximal development?
    a task task that a child cannot yet handle on her own, but can do with the help of an adult.
  99. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development
    tap different dimensions of intelligence than those measured at older ages
  100. Researchers believe that the habituation/recovery response during infancy is effective at predicting later IQ because it
    taps basic cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behavior at all ages.
  101. Research on child care in the United States and Canada shows that
    only 20 to 25 percent of child-care settings provide a level of care sufficient to promote healthy development
  102. In contrast to the United States and Canada, most European countries
    nationally regulate child care to ensure its quality.
  103. What is likely to be among a toddler's first words?
  104. Children prefer to listen to child-directed speech over other kinds of adult talk beginning at
  105. In Erikson's theory, the conflicts of toddlerhood are resolved favorably when parents
    provide suitable guidance and reasonable choices
  106. Stranger anxiety is MOST likely to be elicited when an unfamiliar adult
    picks up a baby in a new setting
  107. Social referencing is important to children's development it allows parents to
    teach children how to react to novel events
  108. Parents who wait to intervene until their baby has become extremely agitated
    reinforce the baby's rapid rise to intense distress
  109. In the New York Longitudinal Study, Thomas and Chess
    showed that temperament can protect a child from the effects of a stressful home life
  110. Marcus is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences.  In Thomas and Chess's research, Marcus would most likely be classified as
  111. What research on temperament is supported?
    Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins across a wide range of temperamental traits.
  112. Research on temperament shows that
    mother's caregiving behaviors often enhance the temperamental styles of their infants
  113. John Bowlby advocated what explanations of human mother-infant attachment?
    Behaviors such as smiling, babbling, and crying are innate social signals that encourage mothers to interact with their infants
  114. One-year old Molly often returns to her mother repeatedly for a hug an a kiss when playing with her toys on the family room floor.  According to Bowlby's theory, Molly is using her mother as a
    secure base
  115. In Bowlby's theory, an internal working model refers to
    a set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences that serve as a guide for all future close relationships.
  116. During the Strange Situation, a parent leaves the room in order to assess ________ and returns again to assess the infant's ______
    separation anxiety; reaction to the reunion
  117. Between 1 and 2 years of age, coordinated interaction appears largely in the form of
    mutual imitation
  118. Myelinization of fibers linking the ____ to the
    ______ contributes to dramatic gains in motor control during the preschool
    Cerebellum; cerebral cortex
  119. extreme emotional deprivation can lead to what disorder?
    Psychosocial dwarfism
  120. a decline
    in appetite during the preschool years
    Occurs because growth has slowed
  121. In industrialized nations, the rate of childhood
    diseases has declined dramatically in the past 50 years, primarily as the result
    Widespread immunization of infants and children
  122. Frequent episodes of otitis media hinder academic progress by
    Causing difficulties in hearing speech sounds
  123. What two factors are MOST strongly associated with childhood injury?
    • Low parental education and frequent childhood
    • illnesses
  124. To parents, fine motor progress in early
    childhood is most apparent in what two areas?
    Self-help skills; drawing and writing
  125. By age 3, most children can
    Take care of most toileting needs by themselves
  126. When Victoria draws a picture of a person, she draws a circular shape for the body and represents the arms and legs with lines.  She adds features such as eyes, mouth, hair,
    and fingers.  Victoria is MOST likely how
    4 years old
  127. Three-year-old Donovan prints the letter D in his name backwards and seems quite satisfied with his erroneous creations?  What statement is most likely concerning
    Donovan is developing normally, as many children reverse some letters in their printing well into the second grade.
  128. What is supported by research on sex differences in motor skills?
    • Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical
    • activities in their children.
  129. Children who spend more time in sociodramatic
    play are
    Advanced in cognitive development
  130. A child at the preoperational stage who is given Piaget’s three-mountains problem and asked to pick the picture that shows “what
    the doll sees” would
    Pick the picture that shows their own perspective
  131. Some researchers cite findings that show
    children approach information processing tasks in similar, stage-consistent
    ways, as long as the complexity of tasks and children’s exposure to them are
    carefully controlled.  This would be
    evidence that
    Piaget’s strict stage definition must be modified to a concept where skills develop over an extended period of time.
  132. According to Vygotsky, children speak to
    For self-guidance
  133. Seth’s parents make sure to provide him with lots of rich, real-world experiences and restrict his television viewing to one hour of
    “Sesame Street” per week.  What statement
    about Seth is probably accurate?
    Seth’s fantasy play involves very little aggressive behavior.
  134. One major difference between scaffolding and guided participation is that
    • Scaffolding is used during teaching or academic
    • sessions and guided participation is used in everyday activities where direct
    • instruction does not occur.
  135. According to Vygotsky, _________ is the ideal social activity for promoting cognitive development in early childhood.
    Make-believe play
  136. Specifically regarding autobiographical memory, _____ engage in more _____ with their children.
    Securely attached parents; elaborate reminiscing
  137. Children’s active efforts to construct literacy
    knowledge through informal experiences are called
    Emergent literacy
  138. What statement about the development of early childhood math knowledge is true?
    Children who receive many opportunities for counting and comparing quantities develop these skills sooner.
  139. Longitudinal studies found that university-based preschool interventions programs
    Enhance IQ and school achievement in the first 2 to 3 years of elementary school.
  140. In supporting children’s language acquisition, _______ is especially important
    during early childhood.
    Interacting with more skilled speakers
  141. Although her older sister consistently models
    the ability to share, 3-year-old Kailyn remains possessive and constantly claims objects as “Mine!”.  Kailyn’s parents should know that Kailyn’s behavior
    Is a sign of developing selfhood and her effort to clarify boundaries between her self and others.
  142. What type of preschooler will probably have the MOST difficulty accurately judging the emotions of others and solving disagreements?
    A preschooler whose family avoids disagreements.
  143. Research shows that interventions designed to
    teach social problem solving
    Show gains that are still evident months after the program has ended.
  144. What statement would likely be made by a parent using inductive discipline?
    “It hurts Sarah’s feelings when you don’t give her a turn.”
  145. A great deal of research shows that punishment
    • Does not promote lasting changes in children’s
    • behavior.
  146. What is a proactive disciplinary action that can
    encourage good conduct in a child?
    Letting the child know ahead of time how to act
  147. Cartoon TV shows designed specifically for
    Contain more acts of violence than any other type of program.
  148. Research on TV watching and aggression has
    Found a link between the two in studies using a wide variety of designs, methods, and participants.
  149. What statement about preschool children’s
    gender-stereotyped beliefs and behaviors is true?
    • Preschooler’s play preferences are strongly
    • gender-stereotyped.
  150. An androgynous individual is one who
    Displays many masculine and feminine characteristics
  151. Baumrind found that three
    features-___________-consistently differentiate an effective parenting style
    from less effective ones.
    • Acceptance and involvement, control, and autonomy
    • granting
  152. The ______ parenting style is associated with
    successful child development.
  153. Research indicates that the MOST important factor in preventing mothers with childhood histories of abuse from repeating the cycle
    with their own children is
    A trusting relationship with another person.
  154. Compared to the first 2 years of life, growth during the school years is
    Slow and regular
  155. What is a true statement about the adolescent
    growth spurt?
    • The growth spurt takes place 2 years earlier in
    • girls than in boys.
  156. Today, children in the United States are taller, on the average, than their grandparents were as children.  This is an example of
    A secular trend
  157. In the brain, _____ consists largely of
    myelinated nerve fibers and _____ throughout childhood and adolescence
    White matter; increases steadily
  158. Colton’s mother wants him to eat a well-balanced diet.  One solution that is easy and
    inexpensive is to
    • Keep healthy snacks like cheese, fruit, or
    • peanut butter readily available for munching between meals
  159. In developing countries, rates of obesity are
    Increasing rapidly
  160. What is usually rare during childhood, but is occurring in rapidly rising in numbers of obese children?
    “adult-onset” diabetes
  161. The most frequent cause of enuresis is
    A failure of the muscular responses that prohibit urination.
  162. What two changes in the U.S. food economy have contributed significantly to the increase in American obesity?
    Discovery and mass production of high-fructose corn syrup; importing of palm oil from Malaysia
  163. At what age are children most likely to begin
    understanding that illness can be caused by contagion?
  164. Recent research indicates that boys outperform girls in sports in middle childhood because
    • Parents have a higher expectations for boys’
    • athletic performance than for girls
  165. What is a true statement about children’s organized sports?
    Overuse injuries from frequent practice sessions can lead to arrested bone growth
  166. Experts suggest that physical education programs should emphasize
    Informal games and individual exercise
  167. Mrs. Harvey has 20 children in her first grade
    classroom.  Based on North American
    averages, how many can she expect to have tooth decay?
    About 10
  168. Children from _____ families are more likely to
    be affected by health problems during the school years
  169. Seven-year-old Renu pours water from a tall, thin glass into a short, thick glass and understands that the amount of water
    remains unchanged.  Renu is capable of
  170. Nadia can sort sticks of varying length into a
    sequence from shortest to longest. 
    However, she cannot mentally infer that stick A is longer than stick C if given the information that A is longer than B, and B is longer than C.  Nadia lacks
    Transitive inference
  171. Cross-cultural research suggests that
    For children to master Piagetian concepts, they must take part in everyday activities that promote this way of thinking.
  172. In some cultures, children are accustomed to
    dividing their toys, treats, and drinks for equal distribution with each other.  These children acquire conservation
  173. What type of child is most likely to be diagnosed with ADHD?
    A child whose identical twin brother has ADHD
  174. What would provide the MOST beneficial long-term effects for a child with ADHD?
    Stimulant medication combined with social, academic, and family interventions and environmental and career support in adulthood.
  175. An approach to beginning reading instruction
    that parallels children’s natural language learning is known as the ________
    Whole language
  176. The basic skills approach to reading stresses
    The basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
  177. A memory strategy that involves creating a
    relationship between two or more pieces of information that are not members of
    the same category is called
  178. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful
    intelligence is comprised of which interacting intelligences?
    Analytical, creative, and practical
  179. Kyoko quickly applies learning and memory strategies to new situations and engages in self-regulation and metacognitive monitoring
    of her own learning.  According to
    Sternberg, she excels in ______ analytical intelligence.
  180. A school district with a large ethnic minority
    population is trying to select an intelligence test that is as “culture-fair”
    as possible.  What would you tell
    district representatives?
    The WISC-IV is the most culture-fair intelligence test available.
  181. Theo’s grandmother wants to make sure he
    successful resolves Erikson’s psychosocial conflict of middle childhood.  She should give Theo opportunities to
    Develop competence at useful skills.
  182. Kenneth just graduated from kindergarten and will be starting first grade in the
    fall.  Based on research, you would
    expect Kenneth’s self-esteem to ______ over the next few years.
  183. As Bailee moves into adolescence, her sources of self-definition will become _________ and her self-concept will be more vested
    in feedback from ________.
    More selective; peers
  184. Mastery-oriented children focus on ______ goals, while learned-helpless children focus on ______ goals.
    Learning; performance.
  185. Mr. Maccadams poses many hypothetical situations to his students, to help them
    evaluate possible courses of moral action to determine which on is fair and
    just.  Which of Narvaez’s levels of moral
    education is the class working on?
    Moral judgement
  186. During middle childhood, the drop in aggression is greatest for
    Physical attacks
  187. Charles received very few positive or negative votes when the children in his class participated in a sociometric study.  How would Charles be classified?
  188. What is important for children to reap the
    benefits of having a sibling?
    Parental encouragement of warm sibling ties
  189. What is true about homosexual parents?
    Some research indicates that gay fathers are more responsive to their children’s needs than are heterosexual fathers.
  190. The overriding factor in positive adjustment
    after divorce is
    Effective parenting
  191. Recent research suggests that in the long run,
    divorce is
    • Better than raising children in a home where
    • fighting prevails.
  192. Sarah is a stay-at-home mother who is
    considering going back to work.  She is
    concerned about the impact on her children’s adjustment.  One of the following options has been shown to have the greatest benefits of children of all ages.  Knowing that, Sarah should
    Work part-time with a flexible work schedule.
  193. Who is most likely to suffer from school phobia?
    Keith, a 12-year-old with above-average achievement and an overly critical teacher
  194. Educational programs that teach children to
    recognize inappropriate sexual advances and who to turn to for help
    Have been shown to reduce the risk of abuse
  195. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, the
    conflict of middle childhood is
    Industry versus inferiority
  196. Compared to girls, boys have higher self-esteem in which dimension
    Social acceptance
  197. Asian children score lower in self-esteem than
    U.S. children because
    Their culture values modesty and social harmony over self-promotion
  198. When faced with a difficult task,
    mastery-oriented children are most likely to attribute failure to
    Insufficient effort on their part
  199. School-age children are likely to explain
    emotion by referring to
    Internal states rather than to external events
  200. As children get older, their coping strategies increasingly favor
    • Verbal strategies instead of overt emotional
    • expression.
  201. By middle childhood, children have ________, leading to greater independence and trustworthiness.
    Internalized rules for good conduct
  202. School-age children consider whether the _____  when making a judgment about the seriousness of violating a social convention.
    Context of an action is an important factor
  203. A _______ child is least likely to draw a picture of God that resembles a human.
  204. Of the following, which statement is true regarding the development of prejudice?
    • Children with overly high self-esteem are more
    • likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices.
  205. One promising approach toward reducing racial and ethnic prejudice in children is
    • Induce children to view others’ traits as
    • changeable
  206. Peer groups in middle childhood are often
    organized on the basis of
    • Proximity and similarity of sex, ethnicity, and
    • popularity.
  207. During the school years, friendships
    Become relationships in which children like each other’s personal qualities.
  208. What is a true statement regarding
    popular-antisocial children?
    They are admired for the sophisticated but devious social skills.
  209. Bullying episodes usually end quickly when the
    Has a friend he can turn to for help.
  210. An effective way to assist victimized children
    is to
    • Help them acquire the social skills needed to
    • form friendships
  211. In a study of more than 2,000 second to sixth
    graders from diverse cultures,
    Girls consistently had higher school grades than boys, but did not report strong beliefs in their own ability.
  212. Between fourth and seventh grade, more young people, especially boys, say it is
    OK to exclude agemates on the basis of gender than on ethnicity.
  213. In parents’ separate activities with children,
    fathers focus
    On achievement-related and recreational pursuits.
  214. In one study, fifth and sixth graders described
    their parents as
    The most influential people in their lives.
  215. What is a true statement regarding gay and
    lesbian families?
    • The large majority of children with gay and
    • lesbian parents are heterosexual
  216. After a family with children experiences
    The children will spend an average of five years in a single-parent home.
  217. What is a true statement regarding divorce and children’s temperament and sex?
    Exposure to stressful life events and inadequate parenting magnifies the problems of difficult children.
  218. The overriding factor in long-term positive
    adjustment after a parental divorce is whether
    Adults use effective parenting.
  219. When a blended family consist of a mother,
    stepfather, and her biological children,
    • Boys tend to adjust quickly, but girls often
    • have difficulty with their custodial mother’s remarriage
  220. Remarriage of noncustodial fathers often leads
    Reduced contact with biological children
  221. What is a true statement regarding maternal
    employment and child development?
    Employed mothers who value their parenting role are likely to use coregulation.
  222. About one-third of children with school phobia
    are 5- to 7-year-olds who are actually not afraid of school itself but of being
    Separated from their mother
  223. Most of the children who witnessed the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001
    Expressed intense fears.
  224. Most cases of sexual abuse are reported
    In middle childhood
  225. Studies examining the relationship between stressful life experiences and psychological disturbance in childhood have found that
    Often just on e or a few protective factors account for a child being “stress resilient”
  226. Among preschoolers, the use of anatomically correct dolls in sexual abuse cases can
    Lead the children to report sexual contact that never happened.