PSY 312 final questions
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One major difference between Erikson's psychosocial theory and Freud's psychosexual theory is Erikson's theory emphasizes the role of ______in development
In a historic experiment with Little Albert, John Watson demonstrated that
children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
Piaget's ideas about cognitive development during infancy and toddlerhood were derived from
making observations of his own children
Bandura's social learning theory emphasizes the role of __________ in guiding children's responses to particular situations.
Two-year-old Victoria hugs an upset classmate in the same way that her parents hug her at home when she is upset. According to social learning theory, Victoria likely learned this response to her classmate's distress through____
Vygotsky's theory focuses on
how culture is transmitted to the next generation
Cross-cultural research stimulated by Vygotsky's theory has shown that
children in every culture develop unique strengths that are not present in other cultures
At the microsystem level in Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, one might examine the
interactions between a mother and her children.
In an experiment, the investigator manipulates the ______________ and observes its effects on the ____________
independent variable; dependent variable
In a ________ design, a group of participants is studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as the participants mature.
In a study examining the development of pretend play, Professor Tomy observed two-, three-, four-, and five-year-olds on one occasion in a specially designed playroom. The design of this study is ____
The findings of cross-sectional studies that cover a wide age span are MOST likely to be affected by what threats to validity?
According to research on resiliency, which of the following factors is associated with protection against the damaging effects of stressful life conditions
social support outside the immediate family
Genes are made up of
segments of DNA of varying lengths
The crossing over and random sorting of chromosomes pairs during meiosis result in
incredible variability among offspring
The most common type of multiple births occurs when
two ova are released from the ovaries and fertilized.
Jim and Joanna are brother and sister, two years apart in age; Louis and Louisa are fraternal twins. Which pair is genetically more similar?
Both pairs are equally similar
Identical twins are created when
a fertilized egg divides into two separate clusters of cells
Down syndrome is most commonly caused by
failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
Serious diseases are only rarely due to dominant alleles. This is because
individuals who inherit these disorders seldom live long enough to reproduce
Why are males more likely to be negatively affected by X-linked inheritance traits
- 1. The Y chromosome lacks many alleles that could potentially override a disorder carried on an X chromosome.
- 2. Male fetuses are more susceptible to disease and thus more likely to succumb to negative alleles.
Improvement in emotional, social, and motor skills for children with Down syndrome can be attributed to
early intervention programs
A heritability estimate of .8 for a certain trait suggests that differences in genetic makeup explain ________ of the variation of the trait
Which of the following is true concerning donor insemination and in vitro fertilization?
More than 50 percent of in vitro procedures result in multiple births
An ethical concern with in vitro fertilization is that
it may lead to selective breeding
What is true regarding the human genetic code
Only a small portion of our heredity is responsible for the traits that make us human
Which pair of sex chromosomes is present in males?
Fraternal, or dizygotic, twins
are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings
If the alleles from both parents are alike, the child is homozygous and
will display the inherited trait
Polygenic inheritance, in which many genes affect the characteristic in question, is complex, and
much about it is unknown
What factor increases the risk of bearing a baby with Down syndrome?
advanced maternal age
Most children with sex chromosomes disorders
do not suffer from mental retardation
For several decades, donor insemination has has been
to overcome male reproductive difficulties
Which of the following is used to estimate the likelihood that parents will have a child with a genetic defect?
Women of advanced maternal age are prime candidates for
aminocentesis and chorionic villus sampling
What is the most widely used prenatal diagnostic method?
Prenatal diagnosis has led to
advances in fetal medicine
In a study of internationally adopted children, _________ predicted cognitive and social competence at age 7.
sensitive maternal care and secure attachment
The family is a network of interdependent relationships, within each person's behavior
influences the behavior of other family members
When a marital relationship is warm and considerate,
mothers and fathers are more likely to engage in coparenting
Compared to their higher SES counterparts, lower-SES parents tend to
emphasize external characteristics, such as obedience, politeness, neatness, and cleaniness
The empowerment that comes from education is associated with
more equitable husband-wife relationships and a decrease in harsh disciplining of children
Neighborhood resources have a greater impact on
the economically disadvantaged than on well-to-do young people
In many African societies, newly married couples
move in with members of their extended family
Collectivist societies value an interdependent self, which stresses
social harmony, obligations, and responsibility to others, and collaborative endeavors
Compared to other industrialized nations, the United States currently ranks _______ in childhood poverty.
In the United States, _________ has/have made government hesitant to become involved in family matters.
cultural values of self-reliance and privacy
The most common type of kinship study compares
identical twins with fraternal twins
What is perhaps the most serious criticism of heritability estimates?
They give no precise information on how intelligence and personality develop
Because walking is strongly canalized, it
takes strong environmental forces to change it.
Due to his athletic skill and interest, 16-year-old Gabriel plays sports year round. Gabriel's decision to seek out athletic activities is an example of
Dr. Holloway believes that development takes place through ongoing, bidrectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment Dr. Holloway's belief is consistent with
the epigenetic framework
In a study investigating the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in children, researchers found that
5-year-olds with both prenatal nicotine exposure and teh DD genetic makeup scored signficantly higher in ADHD symptoms than other groups of children
Between 1970 and 2008, the birth rate for American women in their thirties has
more than doubled
Radsheda wonders when she will first be able to feel her baby's movements. You tell her that this should happen by
the middle of the second trimester
The age of viability occurs sometime between
22 and 26 weeks
The period of the _______ is the time when serious defects from teratogens are most likely to occur because ________ this time.
embryo; the foundations for all body parts are laid down during
It is difficult to isolate the precise damage caused by a single illegal drug during pregnancy because
drug using mothers are often exposed to multiple teratogens
The most well-known effect of smoking during the prenatal period is
low birth weight
Which of the following is supported by research on alcohol use during pregnancy?
The defects of FASD children vary as a function of the length and timing of their mother's drinking during pregnancy.
_________ supplementation around the time of conception greatly reduces abnormalities of the neural tube, such as spina bifida and anencephaly.
Infants born to mothers who delayed prenatal care to the end of pregnancy or who did not seek any at all are more likely to ______ than babies whose mothers received early prenatal care.
die before birth
Which of the following is true regarding prenatal environments and health in later life?
Normal range environmental factors affecting a fetus can affect long term health outcomes later in adult life.
________ is a drug used to treat acne that can cause severe multiple defects if taken during pregnancy.
An Apgar score ______________ indicates that the infant is in good physical condition.
between 7 and 10
The Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
heart rate, color, and muscle tone
One of the fundamental beliefs of prepared approaches is that birth is more likely to be problem free and rewarding when mothers
understand the process of labor and delivery
What is the difference between analgesic and anesthetic use during childbirth?
Analgesics are given in mild doses to relieve pain, while anesthetics block sensation.
What is true regarding induced labors?
In the United States, the induced labor rate has doubled over the past decade.
has become increasingly common in the United States, accounting for almost one-quarter of all births.
_______ is the best available predictor of infant survival and healthy development.
The ______ reflex helps a breast-fed baby find his or her mother's nipple.
What is the newborn reflex that a caregiver can capitalize on to comfort a fussy baby?
Researchers believe that most newborn reflexes disappear during the first six months due to
a gradual increase in voluntary control over behavior as the cerebral cortex develops
When bottle-fed babies are given a choice between the smell of a mother's breast who is not nursing, they
prefer the nursing mother's breast
"Recovery curves" on Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) are effective predictors of
the child's intelligence during the preschool years
Parents can reduce the likelihood of SIDS by
removing pillows and blankets from cribs
Infants of mothers suffering from postpartum depression
exhibit a decreased responsiveness to the environment
The cephalocaudal trend in development means that
the head region develops before the foot region
At birth, the ________ is/are nearer than any other physical structure to its adult size.
Which of the following provides evidence for early brain plasticity?
Deficits in preschoolers with brain injuries sustained during infancy tend to be milder than those observed in brain-injured adults
What has research on breast-versus bottle-feeding supported?
Breast-fed babies have fewer illnesses and allergic reactions than do bottle-fed babies
Baby Jacob's mother is more likely to pick him up when he smiles than when he is fussy. As a result, the frequency of Jacob's smiles has increased. This is an example of
_______ is a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation.
________ is a powerful means by which infants can get to know people by matching their behavioral states.
What is an example of gross motor skill?
Parents who compare their children's motor development with standard charts such as the one in the textbook should keep in mind that
there are large individual differences in the rate of motor progress.
Gibson and Walk's research using the visual cliff indicates that sensitivity to depth first appears around the time that infants begin to
One possible explanation for the high frequency of bedtime struggles in American homes is that
the stress young children feel when they are required to fall asleep without any assistance
Research shows that infant-parent cosleeping
often occurs in cultures in which infant sleep problems are uncommon
Body fat peaks around _______ months and _______.
9; helps infants keep a constant body temperature.
During infancy _______. These sex differences will ________ during adolescence.
girls have a higher ratio of fat to muscle than do boys; be greatly magnified
According to Piaget, during _____, children interpret experiences in terms of existing schemes, whereas in _______, old schemes are adjusted and new ones created to make sense of the environment.
Two-year-old Viola sees a hyena for the first time during a trip to the zoo and calls it a doggie. According to Piaget's theory, Viola is most likely ________ the hyena into her dog scheme.
When baby Radsheda reaches for her pacifier, she accidently pushes it under her pillow. Rather than searching for the pacifier under the pillow, Radshed cries. One possibility why Radsheda does not search for the pacifier under the pillow is because she has not yet developed
According to Piaget, children's ability to experiment with actions inside their heads in substage six of sensorimotor period makes _____ and _______ possible.
deferred imitation; make-believe play
The major difference between Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories is that Vygotsky believed taht
complex mental activities have their origins in social interaction.
According to Vygotsky, which of the following would be within a child's zone of proximal development?
a task task that a child cannot yet handle on her own, but can do with the help of an adult.
The Bayley Scales of Infant Development
tap different dimensions of intelligence than those measured at older ages
Researchers believe that the habituation/recovery response during infancy is effective at predicting later IQ because it
taps basic cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behavior at all ages.
Research on child care in the United States and Canada shows that
only 20 to 25 percent of child-care settings provide a level of care sufficient to promote healthy development
In contrast to the United States and Canada, most European countries
nationally regulate child care to ensure its quality.
What is likely to be among a toddler's first words?
Children prefer to listen to child-directed speech over other kinds of adult talk beginning at
In Erikson's theory, the conflicts of toddlerhood are resolved favorably when parents
provide suitable guidance and reasonable choices
Stranger anxiety is MOST likely to be elicited when an unfamiliar adult
picks up a baby in a new setting
Social referencing is important to children's development it allows parents to
teach children how to react to novel events
Parents who wait to intervene until their baby has become extremely agitated
reinforce the baby's rapid rise to intense distress
In the New York Longitudinal Study, Thomas and Chess
showed that temperament can protect a child from the effects of a stressful home life
Marcus is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. In Thomas and Chess's research, Marcus would most likely be classified as
What research on temperament is supported?
Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins across a wide range of temperamental traits.
Research on temperament shows that
mother's caregiving behaviors often enhance the temperamental styles of their infants
John Bowlby advocated what explanations of human mother-infant attachment?
Behaviors such as smiling, babbling, and crying are innate social signals that encourage mothers to interact with their infants
One-year old Molly often returns to her mother repeatedly for a hug an a kiss when playing with her toys on the family room floor. According to Bowlby's theory, Molly is using her mother as a
In Bowlby's theory, an internal working model refers to
a set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences that serve as a guide for all future close relationships.
During the Strange Situation, a parent leaves the room in order to assess ________ and returns again to assess the infant's ______
separation anxiety; reaction to the reunion
Between 1 and 2 years of age, coordinated interaction appears largely in the form of
Myelinization of fibers linking the ____ to the
______ contributes to dramatic gains in motor control during the preschool
Cerebellum; cerebral cortex
extreme emotional deprivation can lead to what disorder?
in appetite during the preschool years
Occurs because growth has slowed
In industrialized nations, the rate of childhood
diseases has declined dramatically in the past 50 years, primarily as the result
Widespread immunization of infants and children
Frequent episodes of otitis media hinder academic progress by
Causing difficulties in hearing speech sounds
What two factors are MOST strongly associated with childhood injury?
- Low parental education and frequent childhood
To parents, fine motor progress in early
childhood is most apparent in what two areas?
Self-help skills; drawing and writing
By age 3, most children can
Take care of most toileting needs by themselves
When Victoria draws a picture of a person, she draws a circular shape for the body and represents the arms and legs with lines. She adds features such as eyes, mouth, hair,
and fingers. Victoria is MOST likely how
4 years old
Three-year-old Donovan prints the letter D in his name backwards and seems quite satisfied with his erroneous creations? What statement is most likely concerning
Donovan is developing normally, as many children reverse some letters in their printing well into the second grade.
What is supported by research on sex differences in motor skills?
- Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical
- activities in their children.
Children who spend more time in sociodramatic
Advanced in cognitive development
A child at the preoperational stage who is given Piaget’s three-mountains problem and asked to pick the picture that shows “what
the doll sees” would
Pick the picture that shows their own perspective
Some researchers cite findings that show
children approach information processing tasks in similar, stage-consistent
ways, as long as the complexity of tasks and children’s exposure to them are
carefully controlled. This would be
Piaget’s strict stage definition must be modified to a concept where skills develop over an extended period of time.
According to Vygotsky, children speak to
Seth’s parents make sure to provide him with lots of rich, real-world experiences and restrict his television viewing to one hour of
“Sesame Street” per week. What statement
about Seth is probably accurate?
Seth’s fantasy play involves very little aggressive behavior.
One major difference between scaffolding and guided participation is that
- Scaffolding is used during teaching or academic
- sessions and guided participation is used in everyday activities where direct
- instruction does not occur.
According to Vygotsky, _________ is the ideal social activity for promoting cognitive development in early childhood.
Specifically regarding autobiographical memory, _____ engage in more _____ with their children.
Securely attached parents; elaborate reminiscing
Children’s active efforts to construct literacy
knowledge through informal experiences are called
What statement about the development of early childhood math knowledge is true?
Children who receive many opportunities for counting and comparing quantities develop these skills sooner.
Longitudinal studies found that university-based preschool interventions programs
Enhance IQ and school achievement in the first 2 to 3 years of elementary school.
In supporting children’s language acquisition, _______ is especially important
during early childhood.
Interacting with more skilled speakers
Although her older sister consistently models
the ability to share, 3-year-old Kailyn remains possessive and constantly claims objects as “Mine!”. Kailyn’s parents should know that Kailyn’s behavior
Is a sign of developing selfhood and her effort to clarify boundaries between her self and others.
What type of preschooler will probably have the MOST difficulty accurately judging the emotions of others and solving disagreements?
A preschooler whose family avoids disagreements.
Research shows that interventions designed to
teach social problem solving
Show gains that are still evident months after the program has ended.
What statement would likely be made by a parent using inductive discipline?
“It hurts Sarah’s feelings when you don’t give her a turn.”
A great deal of research shows that punishment
- Does not promote lasting changes in children’s
What is a proactive disciplinary action that can
encourage good conduct in a child?
Letting the child know ahead of time how to act
Cartoon TV shows designed specifically for
Contain more acts of violence than any other type of program.
Research on TV watching and aggression has
Found a link between the two in studies using a wide variety of designs, methods, and participants.
What statement about preschool children’s
gender-stereotyped beliefs and behaviors is true?
- Preschooler’s play preferences are strongly
An androgynous individual is one who
Displays many masculine and feminine characteristics
Baumrind found that three
features-___________-consistently differentiate an effective parenting style
from less effective ones.
- Acceptance and involvement, control, and autonomy
The ______ parenting style is associated with
successful child development.
Research indicates that the MOST important factor in preventing mothers with childhood histories of abuse from repeating the cycle
with their own children is
A trusting relationship with another person.
Compared to the first 2 years of life, growth during the school years is
Slow and regular
What is a true statement about the adolescent
- The growth spurt takes place 2 years earlier in
- girls than in boys.
Today, children in the United States are taller, on the average, than their grandparents were as children. This is an example of
A secular trend
In the brain, _____ consists largely of
myelinated nerve fibers and _____ throughout childhood and adolescence
White matter; increases steadily
Colton’s mother wants him to eat a well-balanced diet. One solution that is easy and
inexpensive is to
- Keep healthy snacks like cheese, fruit, or
- peanut butter readily available for munching between meals
In developing countries, rates of obesity are
What is usually rare during childhood, but is occurring in rapidly rising in numbers of obese children?
The most frequent cause of enuresis is
A failure of the muscular responses that prohibit urination.
What two changes in the U.S. food economy have contributed significantly to the increase in American obesity?
Discovery and mass production of high-fructose corn syrup; importing of palm oil from Malaysia
At what age are children most likely to begin
understanding that illness can be caused by contagion?
Recent research indicates that boys outperform girls in sports in middle childhood because
- Parents have a higher expectations for boys’
- athletic performance than for girls
What is a true statement about children’s organized sports?
Overuse injuries from frequent practice sessions can lead to arrested bone growth
Experts suggest that physical education programs should emphasize
Informal games and individual exercise
Mrs. Harvey has 20 children in her first grade
classroom. Based on North American
averages, how many can she expect to have tooth decay?
Children from _____ families are more likely to
be affected by health problems during the school years
Seven-year-old Renu pours water from a tall, thin glass into a short, thick glass and understands that the amount of water
remains unchanged. Renu is capable of
Nadia can sort sticks of varying length into a
sequence from shortest to longest.
However, she cannot mentally infer that stick A is longer than stick C if given the information that A is longer than B, and B is longer than C. Nadia lacks
Cross-cultural research suggests that
For children to master Piagetian concepts, they must take part in everyday activities that promote this way of thinking.
In some cultures, children are accustomed to
dividing their toys, treats, and drinks for equal distribution with each other. These children acquire conservation
What type of child is most likely to be diagnosed with ADHD?
A child whose identical twin brother has ADHD
What would provide the MOST beneficial long-term effects for a child with ADHD?
Stimulant medication combined with social, academic, and family interventions and environmental and career support in adulthood.
An approach to beginning reading instruction
that parallels children’s natural language learning is known as the ________
The basic skills approach to reading stresses
The basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
A memory strategy that involves creating a
relationship between two or more pieces of information that are not members of
the same category is called
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful
intelligence is comprised of which interacting intelligences?
Analytical, creative, and practical
Kyoko quickly applies learning and memory strategies to new situations and engages in self-regulation and metacognitive monitoring
of her own learning. According to
Sternberg, she excels in ______ analytical intelligence.
A school district with a large ethnic minority
population is trying to select an intelligence test that is as “culture-fair”
as possible. What would you tell
The WISC-IV is the most culture-fair intelligence test available.
Theo’s grandmother wants to make sure he
successful resolves Erikson’s psychosocial conflict of middle childhood. She should give Theo opportunities to
Develop competence at useful skills.
Kenneth just graduated from kindergarten and will be starting first grade in the
fall. Based on research, you would
expect Kenneth’s self-esteem to ______ over the next few years.
As Bailee moves into adolescence, her sources of self-definition will become _________ and her self-concept will be more vested
in feedback from ________.
More selective; peers
Mastery-oriented children focus on ______ goals, while learned-helpless children focus on ______ goals.
Mr. Maccadams poses many hypothetical situations to his students, to help them
evaluate possible courses of moral action to determine which on is fair and
just. Which of Narvaez’s levels of moral
education is the class working on?
During middle childhood, the drop in aggression is greatest for
Charles received very few positive or negative votes when the children in his class participated in a sociometric study. How would Charles be classified?
What is important for children to reap the
benefits of having a sibling?
Parental encouragement of warm sibling ties
What is true about homosexual parents?
Some research indicates that gay fathers are more responsive to their children’s needs than are heterosexual fathers.
The overriding factor in positive adjustment
after divorce is
Recent research suggests that in the long run,
- Better than raising children in a home where
- fighting prevails.
Sarah is a stay-at-home mother who is
considering going back to work. She is
concerned about the impact on her children’s adjustment. One of the following options has been shown to have the greatest benefits of children of all ages. Knowing that, Sarah should
Work part-time with a flexible work schedule.
Who is most likely to suffer from school phobia?
Keith, a 12-year-old with above-average achievement and an overly critical teacher
Educational programs that teach children to
recognize inappropriate sexual advances and who to turn to for help
Have been shown to reduce the risk of abuse
According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, the
conflict of middle childhood is
Industry versus inferiority
Compared to girls, boys have higher self-esteem in which dimension
Asian children score lower in self-esteem than
U.S. children because
Their culture values modesty and social harmony over self-promotion
When faced with a difficult task,
mastery-oriented children are most likely to attribute failure to
Insufficient effort on their part
School-age children are likely to explain
emotion by referring to
Internal states rather than to external events
As children get older, their coping strategies increasingly favor
- Verbal strategies instead of overt emotional
By middle childhood, children have ________, leading to greater independence and trustworthiness.
Internalized rules for good conduct
School-age children consider whether the _____ when making a judgment about the seriousness of violating a social convention.
Context of an action is an important factor
A _______ child is least likely to draw a picture of God that resembles a human.
Of the following, which statement is true regarding the development of prejudice?
- Children with overly high self-esteem are more
- likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices.
One promising approach toward reducing racial and ethnic prejudice in children is
- Induce children to view others’ traits as
Peer groups in middle childhood are often
organized on the basis of
- Proximity and similarity of sex, ethnicity, and
During the school years, friendships
Become relationships in which children like each other’s personal qualities.
What is a true statement regarding
They are admired for the sophisticated but devious social skills.
Bullying episodes usually end quickly when the
Has a friend he can turn to for help.
An effective way to assist victimized children
- Help them acquire the social skills needed to
- form friendships
In a study of more than 2,000 second to sixth
graders from diverse cultures,
Girls consistently had higher school grades than boys, but did not report strong beliefs in their own ability.
Between fourth and seventh grade, more young people, especially boys, say it is
OK to exclude agemates on the basis of gender than on ethnicity.
In parents’ separate activities with children,
On achievement-related and recreational pursuits.
In one study, fifth and sixth graders described
their parents as
The most influential people in their lives.
What is a true statement regarding gay and
- The large majority of children with gay and
- lesbian parents are heterosexual
After a family with children experiences
The children will spend an average of five years in a single-parent home.
What is a true statement regarding divorce and children’s temperament and sex?
Exposure to stressful life events and inadequate parenting magnifies the problems of difficult children.
The overriding factor in long-term positive
adjustment after a parental divorce is whether
Adults use effective parenting.
When a blended family consist of a mother,
stepfather, and her biological children,
- Boys tend to adjust quickly, but girls often
- have difficulty with their custodial mother’s remarriage
Remarriage of noncustodial fathers often leads
Reduced contact with biological children
What is a true statement regarding maternal
employment and child development?
Employed mothers who value their parenting role are likely to use coregulation.
About one-third of children with school phobia
are 5- to 7-year-olds who are actually not afraid of school itself but of being
Separated from their mother
Most of the children who witnessed the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001
Expressed intense fears.
Most cases of sexual abuse are reported
In middle childhood
Studies examining the relationship between stressful life experiences and psychological disturbance in childhood have found that
Often just on e or a few protective factors account for a child being “stress resilient”
Among preschoolers, the use of anatomically correct dolls in sexual abuse cases can
Lead the children to report sexual contact that never happened.
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