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What Causes Botulism?
Bacteria - Clostridium Botulinum
What does Botulism cause?
- Lesions in Neuromuscular Junction
- Muscle paralysis
What are the 3 types of Botulism?
- Forage Poisoning
How is Botulism Transmitted?
Forage Poisoning - Ingestion of toxins found in moldy hay, poorly fermented silage, dead animals in hay
¨Toxicoinfectious – Foals ingest bacteria > bacteria produce the toxin
¨Wound – Contaminated surgical equipment or wounds
What are the Symptoms of Botulism?
Weakness, difficulty eating or swallowing, difficulty walking, problems standing or lifting head, loss of muscle control in eyelids and tail, muscle paralysis
What is the Grain test?
Give horses a 8 ounces of grain. Horses with botulism will attempt to eat it without sing their lips, will have problems swallowing. problems will be shown by saliva and sometimes grain draining out of the nostrils
What is the outcome for Botulism?
Very poor - 80 - 100% mortality rate
What is the Potomac Horse Fever caused by?
What are the symptoms of Potomac horse fever?
depression, anorexia, colic, laminitis, profuse diarrhea, fever, abortion
Where does Potomac horse fever get its name?
The Potomac River
What does PHF stand for?
Potomac Horse Fever
How is PHF transmitted?
- Unsure – suspect horses ingest infected insects
- Can't be transmitted from horse to horse
What is the outcome of PHF?
- 30% fatality rate
- Treatment - Oxytretracycline
What does RAO stand for?
Recurrent Airway Obstruction
What is another name for RAO?
heaves, COPD in humans
What is RAO?
- Allergic Equine Respiratory disease
- found in horses older than 6
- reaction to allergens found in hay and straw
What does RAO cause?
- and thickening of tissue
- of smooth muscle
- of mucous
What are the symptoms of RAO?
reduced exercise tolerance, frequent soft cough, increased respiratory rate, wheezing in lungs, heave line
What is the treatment for RAO?
- No Cure, treat symptoms
- Anti-inflammatory medicines
- Proper management
- Remove allergens
- Keep horse on pasture
What does the outcome of RAO look like?
Good with proper care and prompt removal of allergens
What does EIPH stand for?
Exercise inducted pulmonary Hemorrage
What is another name for EIPH?
What are the symptoms of EIPH?
- Poor performance, frequent swallowing, coughing post exercise
- Blood coming from one or both nostrils
- Occurs only ~5% of horses who have EIPH
What is the treatment for EIPH?
- Lots of treatments suggested, few studies done
- Lasix used extensively - illegal in some countries, races, and Olympics
What does PPID stand for?
Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction
What is another name for PPID?
What does PPID cause?
- Enlarged pituitary gland, overproduction of hormones
- long curly hair coat that does not shed, excessive drinking and urination, laminitis, lethargy, excessive sweating, repeated infections (abscesses in hoof and teeth), bulging eyes
Is there a cure for PPID?
What is the treatment for PPID?
- Supportive care, water, clippings, special diet