Equine Diseases Part III

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Equine Diseases Part III
2013-12-07 20:25:33
Equine Disease

Botulism, Potomac Horse Fever, PHF, RAO, EIPH, PPID,
Show Answers:

  1. What Causes Botulism?
    Bacteria - Clostridium Botulinum
  2. What does Botulism cause?
    • Lesions in Neuromuscular Junction
    • Muscle paralysis
  3. What are the 3 types of Botulism?
    • Forage Poisoning
    • Toxicoinfectious
    • Wound
  4. How is Botulism Transmitted?
    Forage Poisoning - Ingestion of toxins found in moldy hay, poorly fermented silage, dead animals in hay

    ¨Toxicoinfectious – Foals ingest bacteria > bacteria produce the toxin

    ¨Wound – Contaminated surgical equipment or wounds
  5. What are the Symptoms of Botulism?
    Weakness, difficulty eating or swallowing, difficulty walking, problems standing or lifting head, loss of muscle control in eyelids and tail, muscle paralysis
  6. What is the Grain test?
    Give horses a 8 ounces of grain. Horses with botulism will attempt to eat it without  sing their lips, will have  problems swallowing.  problems will be shown by saliva and sometimes grain draining out of the nostrils
  7. What is the outcome for Botulism?
    Very poor - 80 - 100% mortality rate
  8. What is the Potomac Horse Fever caused by?
    Neorickettsia risticiii
  9. What are the symptoms of Potomac horse fever?
    depression, anorexia, colic, laminitis, profuse diarrhea, fever, abortion
  10. Where does Potomac horse fever get its name?
    The Potomac River
  11. What does PHF stand for?
    Potomac Horse Fever
  12. How is PHF transmitted?
    • Unsure – suspect horses ingest infected insects
    • Can't be transmitted from horse to horse
  13. What is the outcome of PHF?
    • 30% fatality rate
    • Treatment - Oxytretracycline
  14. What does RAO stand for?
    Recurrent Airway Obstruction
  15. What is another name for RAO?
    heaves, COPD in humans
  16. What is RAO?
    • Allergic Equine Respiratory disease
    • found in horses older than 6
    • reaction to allergens found in hay and straw
  17. What does RAO cause?
    • •Inflammation
    • and thickening of tissue
    • •Constriction
    • of smooth muscle
    • •Accumulation
    • of mucous
  18. What are the symptoms of RAO?
    reduced exercise tolerance, frequent soft cough, increased respiratory rate, wheezing in lungs, heave line
  19. What is the treatment for RAO?
    • No Cure, treat symptoms
    • Anti-inflammatory medicines 
    • Proper management 
    • Remove allergens
    • Keep horse on pasture
  20. What does the outcome of RAO look like?
    Good with proper care and prompt removal of allergens
  21. What does EIPH stand for?
    Exercise inducted pulmonary Hemorrage
  22. What is another name for EIPH?
  23. What are the symptoms of EIPH?
    • Poor performance, frequent swallowing, coughing post exercise
    • Epistaxis
    • Blood coming from one or both nostrils  
    • Occurs only ~5% of horses who have EIPH
  24. What is the treatment for EIPH?
    • Lots of treatments suggested, few studies done
    • Lasix used extensively -  illegal in some countries, races, and Olympics
  25. What does PPID stand for?
    Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction
  26. What is another name for PPID?
    Cushing's Disease
  27. What does PPID cause?
    • Enlarged pituitary gland, overproduction of hormones
    • long curly hair coat that does not shed, excessive drinking and urination, laminitis, lethargy, excessive sweating, repeated  infections (abscesses in hoof and teeth), bulging eyes
  28. Is there a cure for PPID?
    No cure
  29. What is the treatment for PPID?
    • Perglide
    • Supportive care, water, clippings, special diet