developmental psychology final

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developmental psychology final
2013-12-08 00:35:28
developmental psychology final
developmental psychology final
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  1. traditional approach
    emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence little or no change in adulthood and decline in old age
  2. life span approach
    emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood
  3. characteristics of the Life Span Perspective
    • lifelong
    • multidimensional
    • multidirectional
    • plastic
    • multidisciplinary
    • contextual
  4. lifelong
    from beginning of life to the end
  5. multidimensional
    • biological (physical)
    • socioemotional
    • psychological (cognitive)

    inextricable intertwined and influence each other
  6. multidirectional
    decline and growth
  7. plastic
    capacity for change
  8. multidiciplinary
    many different field contribute
  9. contextual
    happens in a context and context matters
  10. three types of contextual influences
    • normative age graded influences
    • normative history graded influences
    • non normative or highly individualized life events
  11. normative age graded influences
    • happen to everyone at specific ages
    • school causes experiences to change
    • puberty
  12. normative history graded influences
    • happens to everyone based on historical circumstances
    • technology influence
  13. non normative or highly individualized life events
    • dont happen to everyone
    • loosing parents at a young age
  14. biological dimension of development
    produce changes in an individuals physical nature
  15. cognitive dimension of development
    refer to changes in the individuals thought, intelligence, and language
  16. socioemotional dimension of development
    involve changes in the individuals relationships with other people, changes in emotions and changes in personality
  17. periods of development
    • prenatal period- conception to birth, tremendous growth
    • infancy- birth to 18-24months, dependence upon adults, development of psychological activities
    • early childhood- end of infancy to age 5-6
    • preschool years, self sufficiency and increased play
    • middle and late childhood- 6-11 years of age, reading writing and arithmetic, focus on achievement and self control
    • adolescence- transition from childhood to early adulthood, approximately 10-12 to 18-22 years of age, rapid physical changes, pursuit of independence and identity
    • early adulthood- late teens to early 30s, personal and economic independence, selecting spouse
    • middle adulthood- 40-60yrs, social involvement and responsibility, assisting the next generation
    • late adulthood- 60s-70s to death, life review, adjustment to new social roles, longest developmental span
  18. early adulthood
    late teens or early twenties through thirties
  19. middle adulthood
    approximately 40-60yrs of age
  20. late adulthood
    sixties or seventies and lasts until death
  21. 4 ways to conceptualize age
    • chronological age
    • biological age
    • psychological age
    • social age
  22. chronological age
    number of years since birth
  23. biological age
    age in terms of biological health
  24. psychological age
    individuals adaptive capacities
  25. social age
    • societys age expectations
    • roles you are taking on
  26. Debates in the field of developmental psychology
    • Nature-Nurture Issue
    • Stability change issue
    • continuity vs discontinuity
  27. Nature-Nurture Issue
    • nature refers to an organisms biological inheritance
    • nurture to its enviornmental experiences
    • which has the greater influence
    • environmental and biological conditions influence each other
  28. Stability Change issue
    • stability is result of heredity and possible early experiences in life
    • Plasticity the potential for change, exists throughout the life span
    • to what degree do early traits and characteristics persist through life, how much do they change
  29. continuity and discontinuity
    • continuity- gradual cumulative change, quantitative
    • discontinuity- distinct stages, qualitative
    • is change in development gradual or abrupt
  30. Theories of development
    • Psychoanalytic theory
    • cognitive theory
    • behavioral and social theory
    • ethological theory
    • ecological theory
    • eclectic theoretical orientation
  31. psychoanalytic theory
    • primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion
    • understanding development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and deep inner workings of the mind
    • sigmund freud and erik erikson both have theories
  32. sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory
    • behavior and problems are the result of experiences early in life
    • mainly 1st five years
    • adult personality- resolution of conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality (5 different stages that has to do with pleasure)
  33. Erik Erikson's psychoanalytic theory
    • primary motivation for human behavior is social and reflects a desire to affiliate with other people
    • developmental change occurs throughout the life span
  34. Freud's psychosexual stages
    • oral stage
    • anal stage
    • phallic stage
    • latency stage
    • genital stage
  35. oral stage
    • birth to 1.5 year
    • infant pleasure centers on the mouth
  36. anal stage
    • 1.5-3 years
    • childs pleasure focuses on the anus
  37. phallic stage
    • 3-6 yrs
    • childs pleasure focuses on the genitals
  38. latency stage
    • 6 to puberty
    • child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills
  39. genital stage
    • puberty onward
    • a time of sexual awakening, source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family
  40. Erikson's Psychosocial stages
    • trust vs mistrust
    • autonomy vs shame and doubt
    • initiative vs guilt
    • industry vs inferiority
    • identity vs identity confusion
    • intimacy vs isolation
    • generativity vs stagnation
    • integrity vs despair
  41. trust vs mistrust
    • infancy (first year)
    • erikson believed the 1st year is characterized by trust or mistrust
    • not complelty resolved in 1st year
    • arises again at each successive stage
    • development of sense of self at 18months
  42. autonomy vs shame and doubt
    • infancy (1-3yrs)
    • acceptance of the cycle of life from integration to disintegration
  43. initiative vs guilt
    • early childhood (preschool years, 3-5 yrs)
    • children must discover who they are
    • they often identify strongly with parents
    • children use perceptual motor cognitive and language skills to make things happen
    • discover that conscious must govern exploration
    • guilt can lower self esteem
  44. industry vs inferiority
    • middle and late childhood (elementary school, 6-puberty)
    • industry- child becomes interested in how things work
    • inferiority- parent who see children's efforts as mischief may encourage inferiority
    • school is important for industry
  45. identity vs identity confusion
    • adolescence (10-20 yrs)
    • adolescents are generally free to try out different identities and choose what is right for them
    • adolescents who resolve conflict emerge with a refreshing acceptable sens of self
    • adolescents who do not successfully resolve conflict suffer identity confusion
    • withdrawal and isolation
    • immersion in peers
  46. intimacy vs isolation
    • early adulthood (20s, 30s)
    • intamicy should occur after one is well into establishing a stable and successful identity
    • intimacy is finding oneself while losing oneself in another person
    • failure to achieve intimacy results in social isolation
  47. generativity vs stagnation
    • middle adulthood (40s, 50s)
    • generativity- adults desire to leave legacies of themselves to next generation
    • stagnation- develops when individuals sense that they have done nothing for the next generation
  48. integrity vs despair
    • late adulthood (60s onward)
    • involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that ones life has not been well spent
    • life review looking back at ones experiences, evaluating them, and interpreting reinterpreting them, set in motion by looking forward to death
    • regrets invlove mistakes and bad decisions, hard times, social relationships, missed educational opportunities
  49. cognitive theory
    • emphasis on conscious thoughts
    • three important cognitive theories
    • piagets cognitive developmental theory
    • Vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory
    • information processing theory
  50. Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
    • children go through four stages of cognitive development
    • process underlie this cognitive construction of the world
    • organization
    • adaptation
    • each stage is age related and consists of a distinct way of thinking- a qualitatively different way of understanding
  51. Piaget's cognitive stages
    • sensorimotor stage
    • preoperational stage
    • concrete operational stage
    • formal operational stage
  52. sensorimotor stage
    • birth to 2yrs old
    • infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions
    • an infant progresses from reflexice instinctual action at birth to beginning of symbolic though toward the end
    • infants understand the world through their sensory experiences
  53. preoperational stage
    • 2-7 yrs old
    • the child begins to represent the world with words and images
    • these words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action
  54. concrete operational stage
    • 7-11 yrs
    • the child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets
  55. formal operational stage
    • 11yrs through adulthood
    • adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistc and logical ways
  56. vygotskys sociocultural cognitive theory
    • emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
    • cognitive development involves learning to use the inventions of society such as language, mathematical systems, and memory strategies
  57. information processing theory
    • emphasis on ways that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it
    • individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills
  58. behavioral and social cognitive theories
    • behaviorism- we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured
    • two versions of behaviorism
    • BF skinners operant conditioning
    • Albert Bandura's cocial cognitive theory
  59. skinners operant conditioning
    • consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence
    • rewards and punishments shape development
  60. bandura's social cognitive theory
    • holds that behavior environment and cognition are the key factors in development
    • observational learning (also called imitation or modeling)
    • people cognitively represent the behavior of others and then sometimes adopt this behavior themselves
  61. ethological theory
    • ethology stresses
    • behavior is strongly influenced by biology
    • it is tied to evolution
    • characterized by critical or sensitive periods
    • noted ehtologists
    • konrad lorenz
    • john bowlby
  62. ecological theory
    • emphasis on environmental factors
    • noted ecological theories
    • bronfenbrenner's ecological theory
    • theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystems, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
  63. eclectic theoretical orientation
    no single theory described in this chapter can explain entirely the rich complexity of life span development but each has contributed to our understanding of development
  64. cross sectional approach
    • research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages
    • takes less time but causes worries about cohort effects
  65. longitudinal approach
    • research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more
    • shows age related changes
    • problems is it costs more time and money and people could die
  66. sequential design
    • the researcher follows a sequence of samples (two or more groups), collecting data on them at the same points in time
    • mixture between longitudinal and cross sectional approaches
  67. growth of newborn
    • newborn is 20 inches long and 7.5 pounds
    • lose 5-7% of body weight in the first few days and then gain 5-6 onces per week during first month
    • grow 1 inch per month during first year
    • growth slows during year 2
  68. what is leading cause of death in infants
    • SIDs
    • sudden infant death syndrome
    • infant stops breathing and die without cause
    • risk decreases when infant sleeps on its back and when pacifier is used
    • higher risk when
    • siblings has died from SIDS
    • sleep apnea or low birth weight
    • infants passively exposed to cigarette smoke
    • lower SES, african america, eskimo
    • soft bedding
    • abnormal brain stem functioning involving serotonin
  69. vision in infants
    • newborns vision is 20/600
    • by 6 months vision is 20/100
  70. newborns hearing
    • fetuses can hear and learn sounds during last two months of pregnancy and can recognize mother's voice by birth
    • cannot hear soft sounds as well as adults
    • less sensitive to pitch
    • are fairly good at determining the location of a sound
  71. newborns and touch and pain
    newborns respond to touch and can feel pain
  72. smell of newborns
    • newborns can differentiate odors
    • preference for mothers smell by 6 days old
  73. newborns taste
    sensitivity to taste may be present before birth
  74. biological influences on language
    • evolution of nervous system and vocal apparatus
    • similarities in language development across the world suggest a biological basis
    • particular brain regions used for language
    • broca's area
    • wernicks area
    • language acquisition device
  75. environmental influences on language development
    • behaviorist claim language is a complex learned skill acquired through responses and reinforcements
    • interaction view (learn language in specific contexts)
    • childrens vocabulary is linked to family SES and type of talk parents direct toward them
  76. early childhood growth
    • avereage growth is 2.5 inches and 5-7 pounds per year
    • girls slightly smaller than boys
  77. leading cause of death in early childhood
    • motor vehicle accidents
    • followed by cancer and cardiovascular disease
  78. growth during middle and late childhood
    • growth 2-3 inches per year
    • weight gain is 5-7 lbs per year
  79. leading cause of death in middle and late childhood
    • motor vehicle accidents
    • followed by cancer and cardiovascular disease
  80. types of intellegence
    • verbal
    • mathematical
    • spatial
    • bodily-kinesthetic
    • musical
    • interpersonal- others
    • intrapersonal- onself
    • natualist- nature
  81. growth during adolescence
    • growth spurt occurs about 2 years earlier for girls than boys
    • girls increase height 3.5 inches per year and boys about 4 inches
  82. leading causes of death in adolescence
    • accidents is first
    • homicide
    • suicide
  83. crisis
    a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives
  84. commitment
    a personal investment in identity
  85. marcias four definitions of identity
    • diffusion
    • foreclosure
    • moratorium
    • achievement
  86. identity diffusion
    individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments
  87. identity foreclosure
    individuals who have made a commitment but not experienced a crisis
  88. identity moratorium
    individuals who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are absent or weak
  89. identity achievement
    individuals who have undergone a crisis and made a commitment
  90. MAMA
    repeated cycles of moratorium to achievement
  91. emerging adulthood
    • transition from adolescence to adulthood
    • occurs from approximately 18-25 yrs of age
    • characterized by experimentation and exploration
    • is a process not an event
    • identity exploration, especially in love and work
    • instability
    • self focused
    • feeling in between
    • age of posibillities
  92. romantic love
    • passionate love
    • strong components of sexuality and infatuation
  93. affectionate love
    • companionate love
    • based on a deep and caring affection
    • passion tends to give way to affection
  94. consummate love
    • the strongest form of love
    • contains passion, intimacy and commitment
  95. fatuous love
    contains passion and commitment
  96. changes during middle adulthood
    • declining physical skills and increasing
    • gain and decline balance each other
    • wrinkling and sagging of skin
    • appearances of aging spots
    • hair becomes thinner and grayer
    • nails become thicker and more brittle
    • yellowing of teeth
    • time for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease
    • lungs become less elastic at 55
    • wakeful periods become more frequent
  97. change in height during middle adulthood
    height tends to shrink due to bone loss in vertebrae
  98. weight changes during middle adulthood
    many gain weight
  99. sarcopenia
    • age related loos of muscle mass and strenght
    • during middle adulthood
    • especially common in the back and legs
    • exercise can reduce this
  100. changes in sight during middle adutlhood
    • accommodataion of the eye (ability to focus and maintain an image) experiences sharp declines between 40-59
    • diffculty viewing close objects-- far-sighted
    • reduced blood supply decreases visual field
  101. hearing changes in middle adulthood
    • start to decline by 40
    • hearing loss occurs in up to 50% of individuals over age 50
    • high pitched sounds are typically lost first
  102. leading cause of death for middle adulthood
    • chronic disorders
    • accident frequency declines
    • heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease

    in first half cancer claims more lives in second half heart disease claims more lives
  103. chronic diseases
    • characterized by a slow onset and a long duration
    • rare in early adulthood but increase in middle age
    • men have higher rates of fatal chronic conditions
    • stress is key factor
    • early signs in early adulthood
    • high blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc
  104. midlife crisis
    • stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite
    • Vaillants grant study- 40s are decade of reassesing and recording truth about life, only minority of adults experience,
    • midlife is generally reported to be high in well being and life satisfaction
    • most are attributed to negative life events
    • have been exagerated
    • stage theories place too much emphasis on crises in development
    • often considerable individual variation in the way people experience the stages
  105. osteoporosis
    • a condition where the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, often brought about by a lack of calcium in the diet
    • happens usually during mid life
  106. divisions in late adutlhood
    • young old- 65-74
    • old old 75+
    • oldest old 85+
  107. biological theories of aging
    • cellular clock theory
    • free radical theory
    • mitochondrial theory
    • hormonal stress theory
  108. cellular clock theory
    • cells can divide a maximum of 75-80 times, this places the maximum human life span at 120-125 years of age
    • telomeres become shorter each time cell divides
  109. free radical theory
    • people age because when cells metabolize energy the by products include unstable oxygen molecules or free radical
    • free radicals damage DNA and other cellular structures
  110. mitochondrial theory
    aging is due to the decay of mitochondria
  111. hormonal stress theory
    • aging in the bodys hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase likelihood of disease
    • prolonged elevated levels of stress hormones are associated with increased risks for many disease
  112. brain and aging
    • brain shrinks 5-10% between 20-90
    • general slowing of function begins in middle adulthood and accelerates in late adulthood
  113. height and weight changes during late adulthood
    • height reduces due to bone loss in vertebrae
    • weight drops after age 60 due to muscle loss
    • move more slowly
  114. vision changes in late adulthood
    • more pronounced decline in vision
    • adaptation to dark and driving at night becomes difficult (reduction in intensity of light reaching retina)
    • color vision declines due to yellowing lens of eye
    • depth perception declines due to decrease in contrast sensitivity
    • cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration
  115. hearing changes during late adulthood
    • hearing imparements are typical
    • 15% legally deaf
  116. smell and taste changes during late adulthood
    • smell and taste loss begins at age 60
    • desire for more seasoned food
  117. touch and pain in late adulthood
    • slight decline in touch sensibilit
    • less sensitive to pain
  118. leading causes of death during late adulthood
    • heart disease, cancer or cerebrovascular disease
    • chronic diseases
  119. theories of socioemotional develoment of aging
    • active theory
    • socioemotional selectivity theory
    • selective optimization with compensation theory
    • erikson's theory
  120. active theory
    • the more active and involved older adults are the more likely they are to be satisfied with lives
    • suggests that individuals will achieve greater life satisfaction if they continue middle adulthood roles late into adulthood
  121. socioemotional selectivity theory
    • older adults become more selective about their social networks spending more time with individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationships
    • two imporatant classes of goals
    • knowledge related
    • emotional
    • trajectory for each goal is different
    • when time is perceived as open ended knowledge related goals are pursued more often
    • older adults perceive that they have less time left, emotional goals become more important
  122. selective optimization with compensation theory
    • successful aging is linked with three main factors
    • selection- older adults have a reduced capacity and loss of functioning which require a reduction in performance in most life domains
    • optimization- it is possible to maintain performance in some areas through continued practice and use of new technologies
    • compensation- older adults need to compensate when life tasks require a higher level of capacity
  123. brain death
    • a person is brain dead when all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specified period of time
    • includes both the higher cortical functions and the lower brain stem functions
  124. living will
    • designed to be filled in while individual can still think clearly
    • designed for situations in which individual is in a coma and cannot express his or her desires
  125. people engaged in end of life planning are more likely to
    • have been hospitalized in the year prior
    • believe that patients rather than physicians should make health care decisions
    • have less death anxiety
    • have survived the painful death of a loved one
  126. euthanasia
    act of painlessly ending the lives of individuals who are suffering form an incurable disease or severe disability
  127. passive euthanasia
    treatment withheld
  128. active euthanasia
    • death deliberately induced
    • made famous by Jack Kevorkian
  129. hospice
    • program commited to making the end of life as free from pain anxiety and depression as possible
    • makes every effort to include the dying patients family members
    • incluede home based programs today, supplemented with care for medical needs and staff
  130. palliative care
    reducing pain and suffering, helping individuals die with dignity
  131. causes of death vary across life span
    • prenatal death through miscarriage
    • death during birth or shortly afterwards
    • accidents or illness cause most childhood deaths
    • most adolescent and young adult deaths result from suicide,homicide or motor vehicle accidents
    • middle age and older adults deaths usually result from chronic disease
  132. Kubler ross's stages of dying
    • denial and isolation: It cant be
    • anger: why me
    • bargaining: just let me do this first
    • depression: withdrawal, crying, grieving
    • acceptance: sense of peace comes
  133. problems with Kubler ross's stages of dying
    • exsistance of 5 stage sequence has not been demonstrated
    • stage interpretation neglects patients unique situations
    • not stages more like reactions
    • some individuals never reach acceptance
  134. grief
    • emotional numbness, disbelief, separation, anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that acocompany the loss of someone we love
    • complex evolving process
    • more like a roller coaster ride
    • good family communications and grief counselors can help grievers cope
    • traumatic, violent or sudden deaths are likely to have more intense and prolonged effects
  135. prolonged grief
    approximately 10-20% of surviors have difficulty moving on with life after 6 months have passed
  136. disenfranchised grief
    an individuals grief involving a deceased person that is a socially ambiguous loss that cant be openly mourned or supported
  137. dual process model of grief
    • loss oriented stressors: focus on the deceased individual
    • can include grief work and both positive and negative reappraisal of the loos
    • resoration-oriented stressors: seconday stressors that emerge as indirect outcomes of bereavement
    • changing identity and mastering new skills
    • effective coping involves cycling between coping with loss and coping with restoration
  138. defining death
    • brains stops functioning for a period of time, heart stops
    • in most societies death is not viewed as the end of existence because the spiritual body is believed to live on
    • brain death- diagnosis of death based on cessation of all signs of brain activity as measure by electrical waves
    • functional death- absence of a heartbeat and breathing
    • more difficult to classify if someone is dead today because of medical technology and keeping people on life support, doing CPR
  139. brain processes during death
    • brain becomes smaller and lighter with age
    • as it shrinks it pulls away from skull and amount of space between brain and skull doubles
    • blood flow reduced within brain and oxygen and glucose use decreases
    • number of neurons declines in some part of brain
  140. DNR
    • do nor resuscitate order
    • how far you want intervention to go
    • anyone can have a DNR
    • if not one a doctor will keep you alive or ask your family
  141. life span
    • based on oldest age documented how long we can live under ideal circumstances
    • currently 122 years
  142. life expectancy
    • how long you can expect to live based on when you were born, it can change over time
    • currently 78
  143. what causes us to be gay or straight
    • hormones during prenatal development
    • roles we are socialized into
    • genetic component
    • bottom line... dont know
  144. defining development
    • pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span
    • involves growth and decline
  145. cohort
    group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences
  146. cohort effects
    differences due to a persons time of birth, era, or generation but not to actual age
  147. sandwich generation
    • refers to middle adulthood
    • couples who in middle adulthood must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents
  148. cataracts
    thickening of the lens of the eye that causes vision to become cloudy, opague and distorted
  149. glaucoma
    damage to optic nerve because of pressure created by a buildup of fluid in the eye
  150. macular degeneration
    deterioration of the macula of the retina which corresponds to the focal center of the visual field
  151. advantages to longitudinal method
    provides information about the aging process
  152. disadvantage to longitudinal method of research
    expensive and time consuming
  153. Erikson's theory
    • o   Integrity
    • vs. Despair:
    • involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review
    • or concluding that one’s life has not been spent well
    • Life review: looking back at one’s life experiences, evaluating them, and
    • interpreting/reinterpreting them
  154. hospice vs hospital approaches
    • Hospice: a program committed to making
    • the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible
    • Palliative care: reducing pain and suffering, helping individuals die with dignity
    • Care of life instead of quantity of life, informed decisions for alternatives, and control to the patient.
    • Hospital: goal of hospital is to cure
    • disease and prolong life
    • One special concern over the current medical system is that it is cure oriented, whereas most health problems of the elderly are chronic