EDU 355- Final

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  1. Decoding
    The ability to convert a word from print to speech
  2. Alphabetic Principle
    Written letters represent spoken sounds
  3. Matthew Effect
    • good reading skills= more readingĀ 
    • more reading= better reading skills
  4. Every Child, Every Day
    • reads something he or she chooses
    • reads accurately (fluency)
    • reads something he or she understands
    • writes about something personally meaningful
    • listens to a fluent adult read aloud
    • talks with peers about reading and writing
  5. Phonological awareness
    • the ability to break language down into parts:
    • sentences into words
    • compound words into word parts
    • words into syllables
    • words into onset and rime
    • words into phonemes
  6. Print Awareness
    • includes knowledge of the forms and functions of print:
    • functions of print
    • conventions of print
    • book conventions
  7. Phonics
    systematic and explicit instruction between sounds (phonemes) and letters (graphemes)
  8. Letter knowledge
    • learning the letter shapes
    • associating shapes with names (arbitrary)
    • learning the sound of each letter (not arbitrary)
  9. Print referencing
    it is a read aloud strategy that directs students attention to the forms and function of print
  10. What are characteristics of early literacy?
    • print awareness
    • letter knowledge
    • phonemic awareness
  11. what are the characteristics of decoding?
    • phonics
    • irregular word reading
    • multisyllabic word reading
  12. what are the characteristics of fluency?
    • accuracy
    • rate
    • prosody
  13. What does the fourth grade slump refer to?
    the shift from learning to read to reading to learn
  14. phoneme
    the smallest unit of spoken language that makes a difference in the words meaning
  15. Accuracy
    the ability to recognize or decode words correctly
  16. Rate
    speed or ability to read words automatically, which frees cognition to comprehend
  17. Prosody
    features that convey information beyond that provided by the actual word: pitch, stress, adn phrasing
  18. levels of text difficulty
    • independent level: 95% and higher
    • instructional level: 94-90%
    • frustration level: lower than 90%, never use for fluency training
  19. Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) score
    • it's the score of the words a student can read accurately in one minute
    • calculate it by the number of words read accurately divided by the total words read
  20. speed/accuracy trade off
    • slow down because they are too concerned with accuracy
    • go to fast and miss a bunch of words
  21. six influences on reading difficulty
    • comprehension: goes both ways
    • automaticity: words recognized by sight
    • speed/ accuracy of decoding
    • metacognition and purpose of reading: students must make decisions in terms of rate and prosody
    • vocabulary size: words in oral vocab are more easily recognized and understood
    • motivation and engagement
  22. Fluency Instruction
    • independent oral reading
    • repeated oral reading: choral reading, repeated reading
    • assisted reading: teacher assisted, peer assisted, audio assisted
  23. How to correct reading mistakes
    • reading wrong word: stop, read wrong word, give correct word, ask them to repeat word
    • stuck on word: give 4 seconds, give the word, have them repeat the word
    • skip a word: stop, you skipped a word
    • added an extra word: stop, you added a word
    • * Always end with them rereading the sentence.
  24. Prosody
    • They are the features that convey information beyond that provided by the actual words themselves:
    • pitch (intonation, inflection)
    • stress patterns
    • phrasing (chunking groups of phrases into meaningful units)
Card Set:
EDU 355- Final
2013-12-08 02:02:37
EDU 355 Final

EDU 355- Final
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