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What is Digestion?
Process by wich feed is broken down into its simplest form
What are the Essential Nutrients (6) for a horse?
How much water does a horse drink in a day when on Maintenance? What if the horse is working or pregnant?
- 8-10 gallons on Maintence
- 16-20 pregnant or working
What 3 sources can energy be obtained by?
What is a Calorie?
Unit of energy
What is Gross Energy?
All energy found in horse's feed
What is fecal energy?
Energy lost through fecal matter
What is digestible energy?
Energy remaining after fecal energy has been removed
What does GE, DE, and FE stand for?
- GE - Gross Energy
- DE - Digestible Energy
- FE - Fecal Energy
What is Metabolizable Energy?
ME - Usable energy minus energy lost through urine
What is Net Energy?
- NE - Metabolizable energy minus energy lost though heat
- Actual amount of energy available to the horse
What does Fat do?
Breaks down from lipids to fatty acids
Fat contains 2.25 times more energy than Carbs and Proteins, what does this mean?
You can feed less to get the same amount of energyStay away from having to feed high carb diet and possibly lead to digestive problems
How long does it take for the digestive tract to adjust to a high fat diet? What is considered high fat?
- up to 6 weeks
- anything above 6%
Where does fat in the diet come from?
What are Carbbohydrates?
Main energy source used in most feeds
What are Soluble Carbohydrates and where are they absorbed?
- Starch >Glucose via Enzymatic digestion
- Fore Gut
What are Insoluble Carbohydrates and where are they absorbed?
- Fiber > VFA (Valitil Fatty Acids)
- Hind Gut
What grain has the highest levels of Carbs?
Do forages have carbohydrates? if so at what percent?
- Normally 6-8%
- but a spring pasture can have up to 30%
How does to many Carbs cause Laminitis?
Lactic acid lowers the pH and kills good bacteria and these give off endotoxins which possibly affect the blood flow to hooves thus causing laminitis
What is Proteins main building block?
What percent of protein do horses need?
What Amino Acid tends to be underfed to horses?
What are the signs of a protein dificiency in horses?
- rough hair coat
- weight loss
- reduce growth, milk production and prformance
What are signs of excess protein production?
- Increases water intake and urine output
- Increase sweat output during excercise
What are the 2 types of Vitamins?
Name 2 Water soluble Vitamins
Name 4 Fat soluble Vitamins
What Vitamins are not produced by the horse?
A and E
Name the Macro Minerals (6)
- Ca - Calcium
- P - Phosphorous
- Na - Sodium
- Cl - Chloride
- Mg - Magnesium
- S - Sulfer
Name the Micro Minerals (7)
- Cu - Copper
- Mn - Manganese
- I - Iodine
- Fe - Iron
- Se - Selinium
- Zn - Zinc
- F - Floride