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When is written consent to performs surgery obtained from the owner?
obtained usually when history is taken
Which part is considered the most important in the Preliminary General Examination?
Owner's complaint and anamnesis (history)
What are the two parts of anamnesis?
Past history and Immediate history
Why does signalment need to be accurate?
Legal evidence regarding animal may be required
What is signalment?
- physical description of the animal (9):
- name and number
- tattoo marks
- permanent blemishes or defects
This refers to identifying the animal as looking healthy or sick.
This refers to looking that all parts of the skeleton is covered with flesh giving the body a well-rounded appearance
Anatomical areas most used to determine condition
Hips and ribs
The state of being where the skin is smooth, glossy, pliable and elastic is called:
The state of being where the skin is dry, scruffy, loss of elasticity and it commonly referred to as being "hidebound" is called
Examples of mucus membranes
gums, conjuctiva of the eyes, opening of the prepuce, vulva
The color of the mucus membranes due to normal reflection of circulation blood
What color of mucus membranes is indicative of anema?
pale pink to white
What color of mucus membranes is indicative of lack of O2 in the blood? Referred to as cyanotic.
What color of mucus membranes is indicative of hepatic toxicity and often called icteric?
What can alter the heart beat?
- Fever (pyrexia)
- Local heart disease
Dog Pulse rate
cat pulse rate
sheep/goat pulse rate
cattle pulse rate
horse pulse rate
swine pulse rate
poultry pulse rate
In general, which types of animals have slower heart rates?
- Male over female
- Large over small
This refers to listening with a stethoscope to the sounds produced by body organ functions.
criteria for good auscultation
- quiet room
- earpieces directed anteriorly to align with the ear canal
- low pitch sound = bell portion
- high pitch sound = diaphragm portion
The fluctuation of the heart rate with concurrent respiration that is normal in the dog is:
The name given to the sound of fluid accumulation in the alveoli.
crackles or rales
The name given to the sound of an airway obstruction
wheezes or rhonchii
Two phases of respiration
- Inspiration- rising of chest wall
- Expiration - return of chest wall to normal resting position
What is the most important parameter we monitor for in surgery?
Dog respiratory rate
cat respiratory rate
cattle respiratory rate
horse respiratory rate
swine respiratory rate
sheep/goat respiratory rate
chicken respiratory rate
What does coughing at night or during sleep indicate?
Which is the primary sign of infection?
Where is the temperature of a bird taken?
Under the wing
What alters body temperature?
What color of mucus membranes is indicative of polycythemia or hyper oxygenemia?
normal color and appearance of urine
amber to yellow and clear
What color is concentrated urine?
dark amber to dark yellow
What does red tinged urine indicate?
blood or phenothiazines
What does green tinged urine indicate?
What does cloudy urine indicate
pus, bacteria, crystals
what does black urine indicate?
monday morning sickness (myoglobinuria)
What does colorless urine indicate?
not concentrated possible renal insufficiency
What does purplish urine indicate
Diathiazanine Iodine (Dizan)
What does blue urine indicate?
What is excessive drinking called?
What is excessive urination called?
What is urination in frequent small amounts called?
What is difficult urination called?
What is straining during urination called?
Order of examination of the head:
eyes, oral cavity, pharynx, ears and nose
This refers to the reflex associated with shining a light in ones eye
papillary light reflex
- miosis: pupil constriction is normal
- mydriasis: dilation in the presence of light is abnormal
This refers to the phenomenon that if a light is shone into one eye and constricts, the other eye should also constrict without shining a light into it also
consensual light reflex
What are the lung lobes?
- L: Apical, Cardiac, Diaphragmatic
- R: Apical, Cardiac, Diaphragmatic, Accessory (Caudate)
What are the 4 heart valves and their location when auscultating?
- Left side: pulmonary - intercostal space 3
- aortic - intercostal space 4
- mitral - intercostal space 5
Right side: tricuspid - intercostal space 4
5 superficial lymph nodes commonly palpated during the Preliminary General Examination?
The correct order for the Preliminary General Examination:
History/Anamnesis > Signalment >Clinical Examination of the patient: demeanor, condition, external body surfaces, mucus membranes, pulse, respiration, temperature, feces, urine, examination of the head: eyes, oral cavity, phayrnx, ears and nose, papillary and consensual light reflexes, auscultation of heart and lung, palpation of superficial lymph nodes, bloodwork (cbc/serology)