Real-World- Throwing.txt

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Anonymous
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251573
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Real-World- Throwing.txt
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2013-12-07 21:58:29
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STUDYUPBRUH
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  1. Vertical Ground Reaction Force
    To create a larger vertical ground reaction force, you must perform the baseball throw on the hardest surface available.
  2. Coefficient of Friction
    To create a larger coefficient of friction, the bottom surface of the shoes that you are wearing must have 2 characteristics:

    (1) the material of the soles must be soft

    (2) the surface of the soles must be rough
  3. Cleat Force
    To create a larger cleat force, the cleats attached to the bottom of your shoes must have 3 characteristics:

    (1) they must be able to penetrate the ground surface

    (2) they must be long

    (3) they must be wide
  4. Muscle Force
    To create a larger muscle force, three factors that influence the size of the muscle force must be considered.

    (1) Muscle Size

    -a muscle with a larger physiological cross-sectional area will create more muscle force

    -increase via resistance training

    (2) Muscle Length

    -muscles stretched to 120% of their natural resting length generate the most muscle force

    (3) Speed of the Muscle Contraction

    -muscles that are concentrically contracted at slower speeds generate greater force than muscles that are concentrically contracted at faster speeds
  5. Muscles Involved in Throwing a Baseball
    SHOULDER GIRDLE ROTATION

    Internal/External Obliques

    WRIST FLEXION

    • Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Palmaris Longus

    HIP FLEXION

    • Adductor Brevis/Longus/Magnus
    • Gluteus Medius/Minimus
    • Gracilis
    • Iliacus
    • Pectineus
    • Psoas Major
    • Rectus Femoris
    • Sartorius
    • TFL

    HIP INTERNAL ROTATION

    • Adductor Brevis/Longus/Magnus
    • Gluteus Medius/Minimus
    • Gracilis
    • Pectineus
    • TFL
    • Semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
  6. Moment Arm
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the line of pull of the muscle force.

    To increase the moment arm distance, you would need to move the line of pull of the muscle force further away from the joint's axis of rotation.

    One method for moving the line of pull of the muscle force would be to change the locations of the origin and insertion points for the muscle. It would be unethical to perform this type of surgery.

    The only way we can change the moment arm distance is by changing the angle of the joint. When the long axes of the two bones connected at a joint are aligned long axis to long axis (straight line), the moment arm distance is the smallest.
  7. Mass
    SHORT-TERM

    (1) wear the lightest clothing possible

    (2) wear the lightest shoes possible

    LONG-TERM

    (1) lost fat mass
  8. Radius of Resistance
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the center of mass of the body component.

    Individuals with shorter bones will have shorter radii of resistance. There is nothing we can do to decrease bone length.

    We can change the radius of resistance by changing the angles of the joints within the body component being rotated. We can decrease the radius of resistance by rotating the body component closer to the joint axis of rotation.
  9. Application Time of Each Joint Torque
    To increase the application time of the concentric shoulder girdle left rotation joint torque:

    DURING THE PREP PHASE

    the shoulder girdle must be right rotated

    DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

    a concentric shoulder girdle left rotation joint torque is applied until the shoulder girdle is maximally left rotated

    To increase the application time of the concentric right wrist flexion joint torque:

    DURING THE PREP PHASE

    the right wrist must be extended

    DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

    a concentric right wrist flexion joint torque is applied until the right wrist is maximally flexed

    To increase the application time of the concentric right shoulder internal rotation joint torque:

    DURING THE PREP PHASE

    right shoulder must be externally rotated

    DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

    a concentric right shoulder internal rotation joint torque is applied until the right shoulder is maximally, internally rotated

    To increase the application time of the concentric left hip flexion joint torque:

    DURING THE PREP PHASE

    the left hip must be extended

    DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

    a concentric left hip flexion joint torque is applied until the left hip is maximally flexed

    To increase the application time of the concentric left hip internal rotation joint torque:

    DURING THE PREP PHASE

    the left hip must be externally rotated

    DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

    a concentric left hip internal rotation joint torque is applied until the left hip is maximally, internally rotated
  10. Radius of Rotation
    The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the point of interest on the body component.

    Individuals with longer bones will have longer radii of rotation. There is nothing we can do to increase bone length.

    We can change the radius of rotation by changing the angles of the joints within the body component being rotated. Any change in a joint angle that rotates a portion of the body component farther from the axis of rotation will lengthen the radius of rotation.

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