PSY 208 Ch 9 (Set B)

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PSY 208 Ch 9 (Set B)
2013-12-07 22:39:01
child development

for final
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  1. The Ethological Perspective
    Ethologists argue that gender differences are affected by evolved predispositions
  2. Etho's say females have
    an innate preference for objects that afford opportunities for nurturance
  3. Etho's say males have
    an innate preference for objects that invite movement
  4. The Biological Model
    Urie Brotenbrenner; Looks at the child's environment as a series of rested structures (embedded levels), each level having an impact on development
  5. The 5 levels of the Biological Model
    microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosytstem
  6. microsystem
    the immediate, bidirectional environment that a person experiences; family, school, neighborhood
  7. mesosystem
    connections among various microsystems
  8. exosystem
    environmental settings the person doesn't experience; can affect the person directly; parents' workplace, extended family
  9. macrosystem
    larger cultural context within which the other systems are embedded; laws, culture, social class, subculture
  10. chronosystem
    consists of historical changes that influence the other systems; change in person or environment over time
  11. What is attachment?
    a close emotional bond/affectionate tie to parents or other primary caregivers/special people (Harry Harlow)
  12. Harry Harlow's research on attachment
    monkeys reared in isolation exhibited social disturbances, rocked, bite themselves; discovered "contact warmth," not feeding, play a major role in bonding process (cloth mother vs wire mother)
  13. Research on monkeys reared in isolation supported the view that:
    children's healthy social and emotional development is routed in early social interactions with adults
  14. Bowlby's attachment theory
    John Bowlby proposed an attachment theory; influenced by ethological theory, posits that children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments w/ caregivers; increases chances of their own survival (phases of attachment)
  15. secure base
    presence of attachment figure provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security; makes it possible for them to explore the environment
  16. Phases of attachment
    preattachment phase, attachment in the making phase, clear cut attachment phase, and reciprocal relationships
  17. Pre-attachment phase
    birth-6wks; before infants bond perceptual skills are not keen; proximity promoting behavior (smiling, crying, grasping)
  18. Attachment in the making phase
    6wks to 6-8mths; infants respond preferentially to familiar people; smile, laugh or babble more toward primary caregiver; still see proximity promoting behaviors; don't protest when separated from primary caregiver
  19. clear cut attachment phase
    6-8mths-1.5yrs; seek contact w/ regular caregivers; cling more to that person than other people; engage in proximity seeking behavior; fear of separation from primary caregiver; stranger anxiety
  20. stranger anxiety
    primary caregiver serves as a secure base for exploration
  21. Reciprocal relationships (goal corrected partnership phase)
    1.5-2yrs on; start to understand parents' feelings, goals and motives; tries to exhibit influence over the behavior of the caregiver; separation distress declines
  22. Ainsworth's Research
    worked with John Bowlby and extended his theory; looked at the quality of infant's attachment; two key measures; studied attachment btwn 1-2yrs using "Strange situation"
  23. Two key measures that provide insight in infant's attachment quality
    1. use of primary caregiver as a secure base; 2. how infant reacts to brief separations and reunions with the caregiver
  24. Three (4) patterns of insecure attachment (Ainsworth)
    securely attached; insecurely attached - resistant or ambivalent; insecurely attached - avoidant; (disorganized/disoriented)
  25. securely attached
    used mother as a secure base to explore the room; somewhat distressed when mother leaves the room (may or may not cry); makes it clear they glad to see her on her return; 62-68% US middle class children
  26. insecurely attached - resistant or ambivalent
    often clingy in the beginning; stay close to mother instead of exploring; upset when mom leaves room and not readily comforted by stranger; seem to remain upset and angry when mom returns, resists her efforts of comfort; 15% US middle class children
  27. insecurely attached - avoidant
    seem indifferent toward the caregiver; tend to avoid mother; don't greet her during reunions; ignore and turn away from her when she is in the room; seem indifferent when mom leaves; if upset stranger can comfort them easily; 20% US middle class children
  28. Disorganized/disoriented (4th type of attachment)
    small group that didn't fit any of the categories; no consistent way of dealing w/ stress or strange situations; appear dazed or disoriented; may freeze in their behavior and remain still for a substantial period; want to approach mother but also regard as a source of fear to withdraw from
  29. Chess and Thomas
    Thought Ainsworth was assessing temperament, not attachment; 3 types of temperament
  30. Chess and Thomas's 3 types of temperament
    easy, difficult, slow to warm up
  31. Easy
    adjust readily to new situations; establish daily routines (sleeping, eating); generally cheerful
  32. difficult
    slow to adjust to new situations; react negatively to new stimuli and events; irregular routines
  33. Slow to warm up
    somewhat difficult at first; become easier over time with repeated contact with new objects and people