soci-80 chp 14

Card Set Information

soci-80 chp 14
2013-12-08 15:52:33
soci 80 chp 14

Soci-80 Chp 12
Show Answers:

  1. Urban areas are examples of....
    economic and social progress
  2. urban areas are characterized by....
    poverty, crime, crowding, pollution, and collapsing infrastructures
  3. what does urban sociology examine
    social, political, and economic structures & their impact within an urban setting
  4. Initially from the functionalist perspective the city was compared to....
    biological organism
  5. What is human ecology....
    study between people and their environment
  6. what is demography
    study of size and distribution and composition of human populations
  7. Migration
    the movement of individuals from one area to another
  8. domestic migration
    movement of people within a country
  9. Ubanization
    population shifts from rural to urban
  10. when did urbanization take off
    later half of the 19th century
  11. an industrial economy grew as people were drawn by
    factories and mills
  12. The industrial economy grew with the help of....
    Europeans and southern rural blacks & whites
  13. Overurbanization
    excess population that doesn't have capacity to provide basic services and shelter
  14. suburbanization experienced when
    after WWII
  15. what is suburbanization
    outward expansion of central cities into suburban areas
  16. Federal Aid Highway Act....what year...whatd they do
    1956....facilitated new housing laws
  17. Urban Population
    area with 2,500 or more ppl
  18. Urbanized area
    50,000 or more residents
  19. Metropolitan statistical area
    100,000 or more ppl
  20. Population composition
    biological & social characteristics of society
  21. what has an impact on social and human services?
    ethnic composition
  22. what is age distribution & what does it provide
    • age distribution is distribution of ppl by age
    • Provides direction on needs such as education, health, housing, and employment
  23. functionalist perspective: Durkheim: society changed from __ to __
    mechanical solidarity, organic solidarity
  24. Funcionalist: Durkheim: What is mechanical solidarity
    small simple societies united through common values, beliefs, customs, and simple division of labor
  25. Functionalist: Durkheim: Organic Solidarity - what is it?
    increasing growth and industrialization where ppl are linked through a complex division of labor
  26. Functionalist: what will weaken social bonds
  27. as social bonds weaken, what else does
    sense of obligation and duty to one another
  28. urbanization can lead to what
    social problems, such as crime, poverty, violence and deviant behavior
  29. solutions to industrialization
    recreating social bonds through social institutions or social changes through political or economic initiatives
  30. Conflict & feminist: Critical political-economy or socio-spatial perspective focuses on....
    how cities are formed on racial, gender or class inequalities
  31. feminist theory: on patriarchy in the city....
    cities reproduce & challenge patriarchy and the problems this creates
  32. Interactionalist: city's economic, personal, intellectual relations not defined by ____, they are as extensive as _______
    physical space, interactions between its residents
  33. Interactionalist: urban communities are segregated by:
    income, race/ethnicity, immigrant status
  34. functionalist: explanation of urbanization & its problems
    focus on the weakening of social bonds & functions & dysfunctions of urbanization
  35. What perspective asks: urbanization enhance or destroy social bonds?
  36. What perspective asks: how does urbanization affect schools churches and families?
  37. what perspective asks: how can we strengthen social bonds?
  38. Explanation of urbanization and its social problems... focus on inequalities.... which perspective
  39. What perspective asks: how to address the needs of all urban dwellers?
  40. What perspective asks: how does one urban group gain power over others?
  41. What perspective explains city living as a state of mind. Urban living and social problems are socially defined....
  42. What perspective asks: how is urban living defined?
  43. What perspective asks: how can we establish common ideas on urban life and its social problems?
  44. How do ppl send the message they aren't interested in talking to others?
    using props like the newspaper or an ipod
  45. along with suburbanization came the ____ - as some say: _____
    decentralization, the demise of American cities
  46. Major Problems:
    lack of affordable housing & public assistance, as well as slow wage growth
  47. Another contributor to the affordable housing problem
    discrimination & prejudice
  48. Household Crowding: Interior residential density is....
    the number of ppl per room in a dwelling
  49. Household Crowding: Crowding is....
    more than one person per room in a dwelling
  50. Household Crowding: children from crowded homes have _____ in the classroom
    behavioral problems
  51. Substandard Housing: who's exposed
    ppl w/ low incomes & ppl of color
  52. housing quality has been associated with morbidity from:
    infectious disease, chronic illness, injuries, poor nutrition, mental disorders
  53. Homelessness: # of homeless (not the exact #)
    hundreds of thousands
  54. New homeless ppl are likely to be:
    female, ethnic, aged 20s-30s, unemployed
  55. Pre mid 1970s mostly homeless ppl were
    older males with substance abuse, physical, or mental health problems
  56. Family homelessness attributed to what in the 80s and 90s
    poor female headed households & lack of low-income housing
  57. Gentrification is....
    process of neighborhood change, where lower income ppl are replaced with higher income ppl
  58. Urban Sprawl is...
    when the spread of development outpaces population growth
  59. Urban Sprawl creates 4 conditions...What are they?
    population widely dispersed, separated homes & workplaces, huge blocks & poor access, lack of well defined activity centers
  60. Commuting: whats the average commute time?
    24 min. one way
  61. Department of Housing and Urban Development: created in what year? Part of who's war on poverty?
    Created in 1965, part of Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty
  62. Department of Housing & Urban Development: has been a major player in two things....
    land decisions in urban areas, spurring economic growth and development in distressed communities
  63. What does the 'Renewal Communites, empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities' do?
    brings communities together to provide community development
  64. What is: Creating sustainable communities.... and when did it start
    Started in the early 60s. Public-private partnerships work for economic development, educational improvement, environment protection, health care, social issues & other issues critical to communities
  65. Urban Revitalization Demonstration Program - HOPE VIĀ  --> what is it?
    grants funds for demolition of distressed public housing and rehabilitation or new construction
  66. Urban Revitalization Demonstration Program - HOPE VI --> has been criticized for what?
    worsening housing because not all demolitions are replaced & not all residents return