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basic accommodations for students with ADHD
- keep verbal instructions brief
- have student repeat instructions back to you
- use mnemonics to aid memory
- repeat main points
- provide additional time
- help students with organizational skills
- help students with study/test skills
- provide frequent breaks
- dont force students to read aloud
- be patient while working with students
- allow retest
- avoid embarrassment in front of class
- be encouraging
- have communication with parents
- help them find appropriate ways to use their energy
how are students with ADHD identified (by behavior). General characteristics of ADHD
- •Often fails to give close attention to details or makes mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities.
- •Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.
- •Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
- •Often does not follow through with instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions.)
- •Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.
- •Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork).
- •Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (pens, pencils, notebook, assignments…)
- •Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli.
- •Is often forgetful in daily activities.
What are the 3 classifications for ADHD
General characteristics of autism
Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and affects a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others.
•The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is estimated to be 1 in 150, and race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status do not affect prevalence. Higher percentage in Utah.
•There is a higher rate of autism within families, indicating a genetic influence.
•Autism occurs four to five times more often in boys than girls.
•Delays in language may include lack of speech, lack of the first initiation of conversations, and repetitive use of language.
•Delays in social skills may include failure to develop peer relationships, lack of social or emotional reciprocity, and lack of eye-to-eye gaze, facial expressions, and body postures.
•Delays in symbolic or imaginative play often occur.
When are most students with autism identified?
first three years of life
Ratio of boys to girls with ADHD
4 to 1
ADHD student need for structure
Do medications cure these disabilities? ADHD, epilepsy, Diabetes, autism
no but the help handle this disabilities
Which groups are over-represented in behavior disorders? Males, females, minorities, poor,
Boys do tend to be overrepresented in programs for behaviorally disturbed children as much as ten to one.”
Who is first in identifying students with behavior disorders?
general ed. Teacher
Which gender is more often identified with a behavior disorder?
What can a reg. ed. Teacher do to help students with language disorder?
What individuals are involved in the program of a speech/language student
Can a hearing loss cause problems in speech & language? What is a cochlear implant?
- A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound nerve deafness by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear.
Most common placement of students in the disabilities discussed in Units 7-12
general education classes
Do students with dialects or foreign accents automatically qualify for speech & language?
Autism & buddy system; Classroom placement for students who have autism
Basics of Asperger’s Syndrome (characteristics, intellect, social skills
If the student has impairments in social interaction and restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior – and not in the area of communication and language – then the student is diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome.
Students diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome do not have significant delays in cognitive development compared with students with autism, who also may have intellectual disabilities.
Teacher needs to help ASD students learn to socialize appropriately
- •Include student with autism spectrum disorder in a class with typical peers
- •Place student in central location in classroom (do not isolate the student in the room)
- •Use peers to develop skills / buddy system •Use scripts
- •Use social stories
- •Use videotapes of social interactions
- •Have ASD student practice the social skill with other students (they rarely generalize skill to new context)
what should a teacher do when a student has a seizure?
- • Keep calm. Reassure the other children that the child will be fine in a minute.
- • Ease the child gently to the floor and clear the area around her of anything that could hurt her.
- • Put something flat and soft (like a folded jacket) under her head so it will not bang against the floor as her body jerks.
- • Turn her gently onto one side. This keeps her airway clear and allows any fluid in her mouth to drain harm-lessly away. DON’T try to force her mouth open. DON’T try to hold on to her tongue. DON’T put anything in her mouth. DON’T restrain her movements.
Basic information on: diabetes
Each and every child with diabetes may have different symptoms of low blood sugar. Although many of the symptoms may be similar, they will not always be the same. Situations that can affect your student’s blood sugar are: insulin, food intake, exercise, illness, stress and/or any changes in routine. Soon you will get to know your own student’s unique individuality and their typical reactions to low blood sugar.
Seizure disorder terms: (2 most common types) absence seizure, tonic/clonic seizure
- absence= just kind of lose consciousness. less than 1 minute
- tonic/clonic= violent shaking
Suggested teacher accommodations for students with visual impairments
What assistive technology is suggested for students who are visually impaired?
- barille typewriter
- audio books
Suggested teacher accommodations for students who are visually or hearing impaired
•Students with visual or hearing impairments who are in the general education program frequently require adaptations to the learning environment and in the structure of instructional procedures.
•Students with sensory impairments may require adaptations in the arrangement of the classroom, seating patterns, and other factors related to lighting, sound transmission, and proximity to activities.
•When students with visual or hearing impairments are present in the general education classroom, it may be necessary for the teacher to modify instructional procedures. These adaptations depend on the individual needs and capabilities of the student with special needs and vary from minimal to extensive.
Who uses Braille? What is it?
language for the blind that they can read with their fingers
Gifted terms to know: acceleration,
progress through the curriculum at an increased rate.
Reg. Ed. Teacher’s responsibility to provide appropriate education to gifted students.
Importance of several types of tests to measure giftedness (not just IQ)
- •Intelligence tests, including those that are less culturally biased, fail to assess such important abilities as creativity, leadership, and specific talents.
- •Creativity test results should be supplemented with information from other sources, such as analysis of students’ creative products and performances and direct observation of student behavior.
Diversity & socio-economics and giftedness: Who pays for gifted programs? Characteristics of gifted
- the schools. federal gov does not pay it
- look on phone
- richer and more varied educational experiences through increased depth in
- content, instructional strategies requiring higher level thinking skills, and
- instructional resources that go beyond the typical curriculum.
, compacting the curriculum.
- : is
- to expand the amount of time academically capable students have to work on more
- challenging material either by eliminating work that has been previously
- mastered at a pace commensurate with the student’s ability
Basics of: anxiety disorders,
- –Anxiety Disorder: abnormal reaction to stress. Five major types:
- •General Anxiety disorder
- •Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
- •Panic Disorder
- •Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- •Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
- •Children and adolescents who have great difficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way.
- •Children with this disorder may exhibit:
- –Aggression to people or animals (bullies, threatens, fights..)
- –Destruction of property (sets fires, vandalism, –Deceitfulness, lying, stealing
- –Serious violation of rules
oppositional defiant disorder
- •Children & Adolescents with ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder) have a pattern of uncooperative, defiant, hostile behavior toward authority figures. It interferes with child’s daily functioning.
- –Frequent temper tantrums
- –Excessive arguing with adults
- –Often questioning rules
- –Deliberately annoying others
- –Active defiance of rules
- –Blames others for his/her mistakes
- –Spiteful, revenge seeking
OCD- a type of anxiety disorder, is a potentially disabling illness that traps people in endless repetitive thoughts & behaviors. (usually cannot control)
post traumatic stress disorder,
a condition of persistent mental and emotional stress occurring as a result of injury or severe psychological shock, typically involving disturbance of sleep and constant vivid recall of the experience, with dulled responses to others and to the outside world
a generic term referring to depression, bipolar disorder and dysthymic disorder.
, internalizing behavior disorder.
withdrawal, depression, anxiety, obsessions and compulsions. Often demonstrate poor social skills, less socially accepted. It is a generic term for the emotional disorders which are often not noticed by others because they are not drawing attention to themselves. These are the most difficult to identify. Anorexia and bulimia are among the internalizing disorders.
TBI (traumatic brain injury) – the many ways it can cause problems for learning, speaking, and social interaction: Teacher Tips
Speech & language therapist assists students with communication disorders
Basics of Tourette’s Syndrome
- are almost always noticed first in childhood, with the average onset between the ages of 7 and 10 years
- TS occurs in people from all ethnic groups, males are affected about 3 or 4 more times than females
- Tics are classified as either simple or complex
- cause is unknown
- There is no ONE medication that is helpful to all people with TS
meaningless repetition of another person's spoken words as a symptom of psychiatric disorder.
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated with diabetes mellitus
deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream
Students with visual impairments may be somewhat below grade level in school because of factors such as school absences for medical reasons and the difficulty of acquiring adequate instructional materials in Braille or large print.
American Sign Language
American Sign Language (ASL) is the fourth most-used language in the United States (after English, Spanish, and Italian). It employs both fingerspelling and signs, but with its own system and rules for formation of signs, it is not merely a manual form of English.
What is assistive technology & 2 examples
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized , that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
alternative computer keyboards for students with physical needs and talking wristwatches for students who are blind, speech synthesizers, grammar & spell checkers, arm & wrist supports, voice recognition software & hardware, voice amplifiers
Advantages of using technology in the classroom (Unit 13)
- -Technology allows individualization of instruction
- –Technology motivates students
- –Technology allows new types of learning and new ways of accomplishing old tasks
- –Technology helps students with special needs bypass or compensate for disabilities
Know several accommodations for students who miss school frequently or for extended time
How can general education teachers help frequently absent students feel a vital part of the class?
- list some one these
- on power point other impairments
Name some things a teacher needs to do (or allow) for a diabetic student.
- have some sugar in the room
- allow them to go to the bathroom whenever
- if they need snacks let them eat during class
What is distractibility?
The ease with which a person's concentration can be interfered with by external stimulation or by irrelevant thoughts