HISTORY 101 WESTERN EUROPE CONCEPTS

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HISTORY 101 WESTERN EUROPE CONCEPTS
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  1. Russian revolution related what is Gulag?
    • Gulag-The Gulag (Russian: ГУЛаг, tr. GULag, IPA: [ɡʊˈlak] (                         listen)) was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems during the Stalin era, from the 1930s through the 1950s.[1]
    • While the camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners, large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD troikas and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment. The Gulag is recognized as a major instrument of political repression in the Soviet Union. The term is also sometimes used to describe the camps themselves."GULag" was the acronym for Гла́вное управле́ние лагере́й и коло́ний (Glavnoye upravleniye lagerey i koloniy), the "Main Camp Administration". It was the short form of the official name Гла́вное управле́ние исправи́тельно-трудовы́х лагере́й и коло́ний (Glavnoye upravleniye ispravityelno-trudovykh lagerey i koloniy), the "Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps and Labor Settlements". It was administrated first by the GPU, later by the NKVD and in the final years by the MVD, the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It was officially created on April 25, 1930 and dissolved on January 13, 1960.[2] The first labor camps, however, were established right after the revolution, in 1918.[3]Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature, introduced the term to the Western world with the publication of The Gulag Archipelago in 1973. The book likened the scattered camps to "a chain of islands" and depicted the Gulag as a system where people were worked to death.[3] Some scholars concur with this view,[4][5] whereas others argue that the Gulag was neither as large nor as deadly as it is often presented,[6] and it did not have death camps,[7] although during some periods of its history, mortality was high in the labor camps.[3]In March 1940, there were 53 separate camps and 423 labor colonies in the USSR.[6] Today's major industrial cities of the Russian Arctic, such as Norilsk, Vorkuta, and Magadan, were originally camps built by prisoners and run by ex-prisoners.[
  2. Russian Revolution related what is NKVD.
    The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД                         listen (help·info)) was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party. It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police which at times was part of the agency and is known for its political repression, during the era of Joseph Stalin.The NKVD contained the regular, public police force of the USSR, including traffic police, firefighting, border guards and archives. It is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB), the predecessor of the KGB). The NKVD conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor camps and suppressed underground resistance, and was also responsible for mass deportations of entire nationalities and Kulaks to unpopulated regions of the country. It was also tasked with protection of Soviet borders and espionage, which included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy within communist movements in other countries.
  3. What is cheka-cheka?
    Cheka-Cheka (ЧК - чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия chrezvychaynaya komissiya, Emergency Commission, Russian pronunciation: [tɕɪˈka]) was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. It was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by Felix Dzerzhinsky, an aristocrat turned communist.[1] By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in various cities, at multiple levels including: oblast, guberniya ("Gubcheks"), raion, uyezd, and volost Chekas, with Raion and Volost Extraordinary Commissioners. Many thousands of dissidents, deserters, or other people were arrested, tortured or executed by various Cheka groups.[2] After 1922, Cheka groups underwent a series of reorganizations, with the NKVD, into bodies whose members continued to be referred to as "Chekisty" (Chekists) into the late 1980s.[3] With Vladimir Putin's rise to power, the reference to the FSB members as "Chekists" arose, particularly by Putin's political opponents, often with negative connotations.From its founding, the Cheka was an important military and security arm of the Bolshevik communist government. In 1921 the Troops for the Internal Defense of the Republic (a branch of the Cheka) numbered 200,000. These troops policed labor camps; ran the Gulag system; conducted requisitions of food; subjected political opponents to torture and summary execution; and put down rebellions and riots by workers or peasants, and mutinies in the desertion-plagued Red Army.
  4. Define collectivization?
    Collectivization-Collectivization in the Soviet Union was enforced under Stalin between 1928 and 1940. The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms: mainly kolkhozy and sovkhozy. The Soviet leadership was confident that the replacement of individual peasant farms by collective ones would immediately increase the food supply for urban population, the supply of raw materials for processing industry, and agricultural exports. Collectivization was thus regarded as the solution to the crisis of agricultural distribution (mainly in grain deliveries) that had developed since 1927.[1] This problem became more acute as the Soviet Union pressed ahead with its ambitious industrialization program.[2]In the early 1930s over 91% of agricultural land was "collectivized" as rural households entered collective farms with their land, livestock, and other assets. The sweeping collectivization often involved tremendous human and social costs.
  5. Define Kulaks.
    Kulaks (Russian: кула́к, tr. kulak, IPA: [kʊˈlak] (                         listen); "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuls in Ukraine, also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of relatively affluent farmers in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union. The word kulak originally referred to independent farmers in the Russian Empire who emerged from the peasantry and became wealthy following the Stolypin reform, which began in 1906. The label of kulak was broadened in 1918 to include any peasant who resisted handing over their grain to detachments from Moscow.[1] During 1929-1933, Stalin's leadership of the total campaign to collectivize the peasantry meant that "peasants with a couple of cows or five or six acres more than their neighbors" were being labeled 'kulaks'.[2]According to the political theory of Marxism–Leninism of the early 20th century, the kulaks were class enemies of the poorer peasants.[3] Vladimir Ilyich Lenin described them as "bloodsuckers, vampires, plunderers of the people and profiteers, who batten on famine.”[4] Marxism–Leninism had intended a revolution to liberate poor peasants and farm laborers alongside the proletariat (urban and industrial workers). In addition, the planned economy of Soviet Bolshevism required the collectivization of farms and land to allow industrialization or conversion to large-scale agricultural production. In practice, these Marxist–Leninist theories led to the ruination of the agricultural economy as government officials violently seized kulak farms and murdered resistors;[3][5] others were deported to labor camps. Beginning in 1932-33, great famines ensued, with several million dying in the Ukraine famine alone. Documents uncovered in recent decades from this time period show that "the Stalin leadership" was aware of what was occurring in the countryside, and were actually using the "famine as a means of terror, and of revenge, against the peasantry."[6]
  6. Trotsky is defined as...
    Leon Trotsky[a] (Russian: Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий; pronounced [ˈlʲef ˈtrot͡skʲɪj] (                         listen); born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein;[b] 7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.Trotsky was initially a supporter of the Menshevik Internationalists faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He joined the Bolsheviks immediately prior to the 1917 October Revolution, and eventually became a leader within the Party. During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army as People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs. He was a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War (1918–20). He was also among the first members of the Politburo.After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was successively removed from power in 1927, expelled from the Communist Party, and finally deported from the Soviet Union in 1929. As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued in exile in Mexico to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union. An early advocate of Red Army intervention against European fascism,[1] in the late 1930s, Trotsky opposed Stalin's non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler. He was assassinated on Stalin's orders in Mexico, by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish-born Soviet agent in August 1940.[2] (Most of his family members were also killed in separate attacks.)Trotsky's ideas were the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism. He was one of the few Soviet political figures who were not rehabilitated by the government under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s. In the late 1980s, his books were released for publication in the Soviet Union.
  7. Lenin-Vladimir is seen as:
    Lenin-Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Владимир Ильич Ленин, IPA: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɪlʲˈjit͡ɕ ˈlʲenʲɪn] (                         listen); born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, Russian: Владимир Ильич Ульянов; 22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1870 – 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death. Politically a Marxist, his theoretical contributions to Marxist thought are known as Leninism, which coupled with Marxian economic theory have collectively come to be known as Marxism–Leninism.Trotsky-Leon Trotsky[a] (Russian: Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий; pronounced [ˈlʲef ˈtrot͡skʲɪj] ( listen); born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein;[b] 7 November [O.S. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.
  8. Kerensky was known for...
    Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian: Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ˈkʲerʲɪnskʲɪj]; 4 May [O.S. 22 April] 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a major political leader before and during the Russian Revolutions of 1917.Kerensky served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin in the October Revolution. He spent the remainder of his life in exile, dying in New York City in 1970 at the age of 89.
  9. What was Stolypin?
    The Stolypin agrarian reforms were a series of changes to Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister). Most if not all of these reforms were based on recommendations from a committee known as the "Needs of Agricultural Industry Special Conference," which was held in Russia between 1901-1903 during the tenure of Minister of Finance Sergei Witte.
  10. Who was sergius Witte?
    Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (Russian: Серге́й Ю́льевич Ви́тте, Sergey Yul'evich Vitte) (29 June [O.S. 17 June] 1849 – 13 March [O.S. 28 February] 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He served under the last two emperors of Russia.[1] He was also the author of the October Manifesto of 1905, a precursor to Russia's first constitution, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) of the Russian Empire.
  11. What was Nicholas II known for?
    Nicholas II  (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918) wasthe last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.[2] His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All theRussias.[3] Like other Russian Emperors he is commonlyknown by the monarchical title Tsar (though Russia formallyended the Tsardom in 1721). He is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian OrthodoxChurch andhas been referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.
  12. Alexander II of Russia was known for:
    Alexander II of Russia (Russian: Александр II Николаевич, Aleksandr II Nikolaevich) (29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1818 in Moscow – 13 March [O.S. 1 March] 1881 in Saint Petersburg) was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland. His most important achievement was the emancipation of serfs in 1861, for which he became known as Alexander the Liberator
  13. Duma is what:
    It was the parliament made up of revolution groups which could put forward laws but the tsar could deny them. The only real power they had was local, but they had their own ministers working for them which was revolutionary as before only tsar had these
  14. Soviets are known for what:
    The first Soviet was established in Ivanovna-Voznesensk during the 1905 Textile Strike. It began as a strike committee but developed into an elected body of the town's workers. One of its main leaders was a Bolshevik called Mikhail Frunze. Over the next few months Soviets of Workers Deputies were established in around 50 different towns. With the failings of the Duma, the Soviets were seen as legitimate workers' government. Soviets challenged the power of Nicholas II and attempted to enforce promises made in the October Manifesto such as the freedom of the press, assembly and association.
  15. Mir is what concept.
    mir, in Russian history, a self-governing community of peasant households that elected its own officials and controlled local forests, fisheries, hunting grounds, and vacant lands. To make taxes imposed on its members more equitable, the mir assumed communal control of the community’s arable land and periodically redistributed it among the households, according to their sizes
  16. Mark the russian Revolution main points
    • Russia 1856-1945  Russian peasant problem and industrialization, 1856-1900
    • Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution      of 1905
    • WWI and the Revolutions of 1917
    • The Civil War
    • NEP: Bolshevism and the Peasant Problem
    • Collectivization: Stalin and the Industrialization
  17. Luddites were:
    The Luddites were 19th-century English textile artisans who protested against newly developed labour-saving machinery from 1811 to 1817. The stocking frames, spinning frames and power looms introduced during the Industrial Revolution threatened to replace the artisans with less-skilled, low-wage labourers, leaving them without work.
  18. Engels were defined as
    BlakeFriedrich Engels (German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈɛŋəls]; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx. In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research. In 1848 he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, and later he supported Marx financially to do research and write Das Kapital. After Marx's death, Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organized Marx's notes on the "Theories of Surplus Value" and this was later published as the "fourth volume" of Capital.[1] He has also made important contributions to family economics.
  19. Who was Wordsworth?
    William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with the 1798 joint publication Lyrical Ballads.Wordsworth's magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a semiautobiographical poem of his early years which he revised and expanded a number of times. It was posthumously titled and published, prior to which it was generally known as "the poem to Coleridge". Wordsworth was Britain's Poet Laureate from 1843 until his death in 1850. Wordsworth criticizes the world of the First Industrial Revolution for being absorbed in materialism and distancing itself from nature. Composed circa 1802, the poem was first published in Poems, In Two Volumes (1807). Like most Italian sonnets, its 14 lines are written in iambic
  20. Edwin Chadwick was
    Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB (24 January 1800 – 6 July 1890) was an English social reformer, noted for his work to reform the Poor Laws and improve sanitary conditions and public health.
  21. Mary Shelley was known for
    Frankenstein and the Industrial RevolutionFrankenstein by Mary Shelley was inspired by ghost stories and the controversy over industrialization in 19th century England. This story of people creating new life through machines continues to engage filmmakers and other storytellers in the 20th and 21st centuries.
  22. Who is Fitchte?
    • Fichte argued that self-consciousness was a social phenomenon — an important step and perhaps the first clear step taken in this direction by modern philosophy. A necessary condition of every subject's self-awareness, for Fichte, is the existence of other rational subjects. These others call or summon (fordern auf) the subject or self out of its unconsciousness and into an awareness of itself as a free individual.
    • Fichte also developed a theory of the state based on the idea of self-sufficiency. In his mind, the state should control international relations, the value of money, and remain an autarky. Because of this necessity to have relations with other rational beings in order to achieve consciousness, Fichte writes that there must be a 'relation of right,' in which there is a mutual recognition of rationality by both parties.Fichte made important contributions to political nationalism in Germany. In his Addresses to the German Nation (1808), a series of speeches delivered in Berlin under French occupation, he urged the German peoples to "have character and be German"—entailed in his idea of Germanness was antisemitism, since he argued that "making Jews free German citizens would hurt the German nation."[10] Fichte answered the call of Freiherr vom Stein, who attempted to develop the patriotism necessary to resist the French specifically among the "educated and cultural elites of the kingdom." Fichte located Germanness in the supposed continuity of the German language, and based it on Tacitus, who had hailed German virtues in Germania and celebrated the heroism of Arminius in his Annales.[11]In an earlier work from 1793 dealing with the ideals and politics of the French Revolution, Beiträge zur Berichtigung der Urteile des Publikums über die Französische Revolution (Contributions to the Correction of the Public's Judgment concerning the French Revolution), he called Jews a "state within a state" that could "undermine" the German nation.[12] In regard to Jews getting "civil rights," he wrote that this would only be possible if one managed "to cut off all their heads in one night, and to set new ones on their shoulders, which should contain not a single Jewish idea."[12]
  23. MauriceBarres known for:
    Maurice Barres nationalism, protectionism and socialism. Republican Barres has a strong influence on various following French monarchists, as well as various other figures. Barrès is considered, alongside Charles Maurras, as one of the main thinkers of ethnic nationalism at the turn of the century in France, associated with Revanchism — the desire to reconquer the Alsace-Lorraine, annexed by the newly created German Empire at the end of the 1871 Franco-Prussian War (Barrès was aged 8 at that time). In fact, he himself popularized the word "nationalism" in French.[5]
  24. Who was Treitschke?
    Treitschke was a proponent of authoritarian power politics and a vociferous herald of the unity of Germany through Prussian might. Treitschke believed that the state should be the centre of the lives of its citizens and that it should be headed by authoritarian rulers without the check of a parliament. He held that Germany was the true heir of the Holy Roman Empire; thus he pressed for its rise to the status of a great imperialist power. He disparaged western European liberalism and took an equally skeptical view of democracy in North America.

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