Soci 80 Chap 12: alcohol and drug abuse

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Soci 80 Chap 12: alcohol and drug abuse
2013-12-08 02:51:23
sociology final

sociology final
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  1. Functionalist Perspective on drug abuse
    • a set of social norms identify the appropriate use of drugs and alcohol (eg. prescription drugs, or occasional alcohol consumption for celebration/health benefits)
    • society also provides what is determined as excessive use (college students share idea of excessive drinking to be a cultural norm)
  2. Durkheim's theory of anomie--drug abuse
    • lacking norms to control behavior, people pursue self destructive behaviors like alcohol abuse
    • when people are in situations where they feel isolated and unsure what is expected of them they may experience high levels of stress which may lead to deviant behaviors, including drug abuse
  3. role strain
    when individuals lack sufficient resources to deal with demanding social situations or circumstances
  4. Conflict perspective on drug abuse
    powerful political and business interest groups manipulate images of drugs
  5. feminist perspective on drug abuse
    • experiences unique to women, minority ethnic groups, gay/lesbian populations, and other marginalized groups were ignored until the 1970s
    • there has been increasing recogition of gender-specific and gender-sensitive treatment models (12 steps for Women Alcoholics)
  6. Interactionist Perspective on drug abuse
    addresses how individuals or groups are labeled "abusers" and how society responds to them
  7. theory of differential association
    explains how we learn specific behaviors and norms from the groups we have contact with
  8. drug abuse
    the use of any drug or medication for a reason other than which it was intended or in a manner other than directed which can lead to clinically significant impairment or distress
  9. drug addiction
    physical and/or psychological dependence on a drug or medication
  10. alcohol
    • most abused drug in the US
    • usage is related to a wide range of adverse health and social consequences
  11. 4 symptoms or alcoholism
    • cravings
    • loss of control
    • physical dependence
    • tolerance
  12. three different sources of stress--alcoholism in minorities
    • acculturative stress: comes from leaving their homeland and adapting to a new country
    • socioeconomic stress: comes from feeling disempowered due to social and economic inequalities in US society
    • minority stress:tension that minorities encounter because of racism
  13. factors that increase women's risk of addiction
    the experience of negative affective states (depression or loneliness; negative life events such as physical or sexual abuse)
  14. factors that decrease women's risk of addiction
    • women are socialized to abstain from alcohol use or to drink less than men
    • women not participating in the labor force may have less access to alcohol than men do
    • women's roles as wife and mother may also discourage alcohol intake
  15. youth and alcohol
    • people who start drinking before 14 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than those who begin at 20 <
    • adolescents who use alcohol are at higher risk for social, medical, and legal problems
    • alcohol related car crashes are more than twice as common among 16-20 year olds than 21 < 
    • underage alcohol use is more likely to kill young people than all illegal drugs combined
  16. tobacco and nicotine
    • tobacco is the world's number one drug problem, killing more people than all other drugs combined
    • (2010) 10 million people/ year worldwide will die of diseases caused by cigarette smoking
    • 71 million Americans reported use of tobacco products in 2007
  17. adolescent smoking
    • compared to nonsmokers, they have more stressful environments, more academic problems, and poorer coping skills
    • is associated with: disruptive home environment, parental and peer smoking, low social support from family and friends, conflict with parents, and stressful life events
  18. marijuana
    • 2.45% of the worlds population consume it
    • favored among youth and adolescents
    • major active chemical is THC
    • can impair short-term memory, judgement, and other cognitive functions
  19. methamphetamine
    • highly addictive central nervous system stimulant 
    • can be injected, snorted, smoked, or ingested orally
    • most prevalent synthetic drug manufactured in the US
    • ~5% of US ages >12 report usage of atleast once
    • chronic use can cause violent behavior, anxiety, confusion, insomnia, and psychotic delusions
    • long term use can lead to brain damage similar to Alzheimer's, stroke, and/or epilepsy
  20. cocaine
    • strong central nervous stimulant 
    • can be snorted, smoked, and injected
    • most common in 18-25 years old
    • (2005) 2.4 million current users
    • complications include cadiovascular disease, respiratory effects, neurological effects and gastrointestinal complications
  21. crime and violence--drug abuse
    • (2005) more than 2/3rds of jail inmates were dependent on or abusing alcohol/drugs
    • 1/2 of all convicted jail inmates were under influence at the time of their offence
    • alcohol has been associated with: intimate partner violence, and a cause/ consequence of child abuse
  22. drug use at the workplace
    • effects quality and organization of work
    • correlated to drinking subcultures at work
    • effects safety of workplace
    • repetitive tasks
    • dangerous working conditions
  23. decriminalization
    keeping criminal penalties but reducing their severity or removing some kinds of behavior from inclusion under the law
  24. legalization
    suggests removing drugs from the control of the law entirely
  25. arguments for legalization
    • current laws and enforcement initiatives failed
    • arrest & incarceration doesnt alleviate the drug problem
    • drug crimes are actually victimless crimes
    • will reduce crime and violence and improve quality of life in inner cities
    • health risks can be diminished by providing clean and high-quality substances
    • banning drugs is a violation of civil liberties
  26. medical and public health community arguments against legalization
    • most research shows harm on an individual's health
    • drug use is a significant factor in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV
    • drug users are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and in criminal activity
    • we would see increase in drug use and addiction, drug related crimes, and costs related to drug treatment and criminal justics
  27. Harm Reduction Approach
    suggests that "managing drug misuse is more appropriate than attempting to stop it all together"
  28. Harm Reduction Approach emphasizes:
    • treatment, rehabilitation, and education
    • changes in drug policies
    • HIV/AIDS- related interventions
    • broader drug treatment options
    • counseling and clinical case management for those who want to continue using drugs
    • ancillary interventions(housing, healing centers, advocacy groups)
  29. campus programs for binge drinking
    • student participation and involvement (volunteer services, advisory boards, or task forces to discourage alcohol or other drug(AOD) use or abuse)
    • educational and informational processes, such as AOD instruction in classes, bulletin boards and displays, and resource centers
    • efforts directed at the larger structural environment; changing the campus regulatory environment and developing AOD free alternative programming
  30. Drug Free Communities Act (1997)
    program supports coalitions that rely on mentoring, parental involvement, community education, and school based programs for drug prevention and intervention
  31. Community Anti-drug Coalitions of America
    nonprofit organizations that provide technical assistance and training to community-based coalitions