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earliest form of preservation
breed known for cutability
this bacteria can grow in cool places like drains and is a major concern for ready to eat meats
this parasite will form cysts in tissue if ingested and was once a major concern in pork
this is often used in the producction of fermented meats and is known as good bacteria
this pathogen is a major concern in beef and can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome
this bacteria forms spores that arent killed at cooking temps and are anerobic
a large concern in the poultry industry found inside eggs and was number one cause of food related deaths in 2011
what is HACCP and what does it stand for?
- hazard analysis critical control points
- it is a system used to help in food safety
name the three types of hazards and give an example of each.
- Chemical-->bleach/ pesticides
- physical-->glass, metal, wood, bone
name a benifit and a downfall of hormone use
- increase growth efficiency
- less marbling
would you expect loin or limb muscles to be more tender why?
loin, less collagen
name a positive and a negative of bos indicus cattle
- very hardy
- poor quality meats
what are common names for fat deposits and in what order do they begin developing
- visceral: 1 KPH kidney pelvic heart
- intramuscular: 4 marbling
- intermuscular: 2/3 seamfat
- subcutaneous: 2/3 backfat
identify wheter red or white muscle fibers are associated with each
4: rapid contraction
5:use oxidative energy metabolism
__ is the color of meat with cure added but not yet cooked.
__ is the fresh meat pigment that is brown in color.
__ is the state of fresh meat pigment in cooked uncured product.
__, __, and __, are all products of irreversible reactions.
- denatured metmyoglobin
__ is the pigment in cured cooked meat.
__is the fresh meat color related to bloom or exposure to oxygen that causes a bright red color
what are the nutrients that meat is a great source of?
protein, B-vitamins, riboflavin, iron
what is true of clostridium botulinum?
- produces a toxin that is injected into human faces during cosmetic surgery
- it is a problem in canning (anerobic)
tell wheather each increases or decreases dressing percentage:
1: manure stuck to hide
2: animals off feed for 8 hours before slaughter
3: animal is fat
4: animal is heavily muscled
- 1: decrease
- 2: increase
- 3: decrease
- 4: increase
when meat pH is high having a lot of negative charges, will it hold more water or less at its isoelectric point?
what chain of events occurs when the animal is exanguinated
- no oxygen delivered
- anerobic metabolism begins
- lactic acid production
- waste/heat not able to be removed
- pH drops
explain DFD and PSE.
- Dark firm dry: long term stress depletes glycogen stores less lactic acid keeps pH higher so it can hold more water
- Pale soft exudative: short term stress leads to lactic acid build up just before death to decrease pH and water holding capacity
what 6 factors influence bacterial growth and why are each a concern in meat?
- Food--> meat has supply of nutrients for bacterial growth
- acidity--> meat is at a pH of around 5.8 which is good for bacterial growth as they like 4.6-7.5
- temperature--> if not chilled or cooked properly meat is a good temp for bacteria to grow 40-140 0F for 4 hours
- time--> if held in danger zone for 4 hours bacterial growth is optimized
- oxygen-->ground meats have been exposed to oxygen for an aerobic environment and most bacteria are aerobes
- moisture--> bacteria need >.85 water activity most meats are about .99 so they have water for growth
what are five principals to cutting meat?
- fat from lean
- high value from low value
- thick from thin
- tender from tough
- cut perpendicular to grain
from top to bottom left to right what are the names parts
- jowl boston butt loin
- foot picnic shoulder belly/spare ribs
what are the total by products percentage body weight for beef?
what are the total by products percentage body weight for lamb
what are the total by products percentage body weight for pork
what are the total by products?
hide, edible fats, variety meats, blood, inedible fats/bones/meat scraps
edible organs as percent body weight for beef lamb and hog?
name four byproducts and uses
- beef extract: from water used in canning and cooking
- blood: sausages
- tripe: from the beef stomach fresh or in sausage
- chitterlings: pig intestines
- cheek head meat: sausage
- intestines: natural casing
- testicles: usually deep fried (beef lamb turkey)
what is rendering?
to reduce convert or melt down animal tissues by heating
from top to bottom left to right name the whole sale cuts
- chucks 5th and 6th rib loin sirloin round
- brisket plate flank
- 12th and 13th
for veal highest priced wholsale cut
lamb wholesale cuts top to bottom left to right
- neck rack loin leg>can be sirloin offoron
- shoulder breast
what is the highest value retail cut of beef?
which wholesale cut does bacon come from?
name one cut from a beef loin
short loin, strip loin, tenderloin
what are the two whole sale cuts of the pig shoulder?
- boston butt
- picnic shoulder
is the lamb sirloin part of the loin or leg?
what does MAP stand for in packaging?
Modified atmoshpere packaging
what are some positives in MAP packaging air environment?
prevent oxidation, preserve color, discourage aerobic bacteria growth
what are the percentages of the total of types of cattle slaughtered?
- steers: 49.3%
- heifers: 29%
- dairy cows: 8.7%
- other cows: 11.3%
- bulls: 1.7%
what are average live weights for beef pork sheep and goats?
- beef: 1277
- pork: 275
- sheep: 138
- goat: 63
what are average carcass weights for beef pork and sheep?
- beef: 773
- pork: 206
- sheep: 70
know general trends in head and product production through years
head goes down product goes up
what are the top four markets for US beef?
- south korea
what is the allowable limit (%) of mechanically separated meat in products?
what does LFBT stand for?
lean finely textured beef trimmings
what is the functionality of ammonium hydroxide? 3 things.
- increase binding capacity
- improve texture
- antimicrobial activity
how do egg whites inhibit bacterial growth? 2 things
- buffer pH of 7
- enzymatic activity to kill bacteria
what is the purpose of the yolk?
high quality food source for embryo
what does the inner shell membrane do?
keeps bad bacteria out
what doesn the external shell do?
protects from damage, microbes, dessication, and regulates gas and water exchange
give the percentages and uses of eggs.
- 31.6% further processing
- 57.3% retail
- 8% foodservice
- 3.1% exported
what determines the health differances of eggs?
feed given to chickens
what is the approximate percentage of whole egg composition?
- water: 75%
- protein: 12-14%
- lipids: 10-12%
- minerals: 1%
what percentage of shell white and yolk is a typical large size egg?
- shell: 9-12%
- white: 60-63%
- yolk: 30-33%
what is the approximate biological value of the protein in an egg
what is the approximate biological value of the protein in beef
what is the approximate biological value of the protein in milk
what is the approximate biological value of the protein in soybeans
what is the approximate biological value of the protein in wheat, whole
what is the approximate biological value of the protein in corn
what is the approximate biological value of the protein in beans, dry
what is the composition of an egg white?
- water: 90%
- protein: 10%
- carbohydrates: 1%
what is the composition of the egg yolk?
- water: 50%
- protein: 17%
- lipids: 33%
what are the main egg minerals?
true false. egg proteins contain all nine essential amino acids
what is the pre-slaughter regime in chickens?
- feed withdrawl
- catching and cooping
- holding at the processing plant
how long must feed be with held for broilers and turkey?
- broilers: 8-12 hours
- turkeys: 6-12 hours
what are the steps in slaughter?
- feather removal