Organic molecules 4of4 (Nucleic acids)

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Organic molecules 4of4 (Nucleic acids)
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2013-12-17 00:53:34
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Organic molecules 4of4 Nucleic acids
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Organic molecules 4of4 (Nucleic acids)
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  1. What are nucleic acids?
    • Huge organic molecules (macromolecules)
    • Chain of repeating monomers called nucleotides.
    • Contain C, H, O, N, and P.
    • Two types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
  2. What are nucleotides? How are they named and bonded?
    • The monomer of nucleic acids
    • Made of a phosphate group (PO4^3-), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA, ribose in RNA) and a nitrogenous base (A, C, G, T (or U in RNA))
    • Named according to their nitrogenous base (adenine nucleotide).
  3. How do nucleotides bond?
    • Bond in two ways
    • 1. Covalent bonds alternating between the phosphate groups and pentose sugars to form chains the backbone of nucleic acids.
    • 2. In DNA two chains bond through hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases which are then called base pairs (A-T(U in RNA), C-G).
  4. What are the nitrogenous bases? How do they bond?
    • Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine ( or Uracil)
    • Categorized as PURINES and PYRIMIDINES
    • Form hydrogen bonds with each other. Guanine with Cytosine, and Adenine with Thymine (or Uracil in RNA)
  5. What are purines?
    • Larger double-ringed bases. 
    • Adenine and Guanine
    •         _   _
    • pure As Gold
  6. What are pyrimidines?
    • Smaller single-ring bases.
    • Cytosine and Thymine (or Uracil)
    • _    _         
    • Cut The py
  7. What is DNA? What happens to it during cellular division?
    • Deoxyribonucleic 
    • Forms the inherited genetic material in cells (chromosomes)
    • Consists of two nucleic acids connected at their nitrogenous bases to form a double helix. If you have one strand of DNA you know what the connecting strand consists of sense A-T and G-C.
    • When DNA is copied, cells divide to increase number, it splits at the hydrogen bonds to act as a template to form a complementary strand.
  8. What are genes? Alleles? Mutations?
    • A segment of DNA that forms a protein or serves a specific purpose (inherited traits).
    • Alleles are genes with a slightly different sequence of base pairs (code for a different version of same trait)
    • Mutations are permanent changes in the base sequence of DNA
  9. What is RNA? RNAP?
    • A single stand of nucleotides with the nitrogenous bases: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil.
    • Its pentose sugar is ribose, as where DNA's is deoxyribose.
    • RNA is used to guide the synthesis of proteins and amino acids.
    • RNAP (RNA Polymerase) is an enzyme that creates mRNA (copy of a gene) using one side of DNA as a template which is called transcription.
  10. What is the double helix model? Who "discovered" it?
    • Watson and Crick
    • The form DNA takes, a double helix formed from hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases.
  11. How does DNA create something like me?
    DNA is stored in a cells nucleus, RNAP (RNA Polymerase) creates a mRNA of a segment of DNA (gene) which leaves the nucleus and is used to guide the formation of proteins, which create your phenotypes (what you physically look like).
  12. What is ATP?
    • Adenosine Triphosphate
    • Made of an adenosine (adenine and a pentose sugar ribose) and three phosphate groups.
    • ATP provides energy needed for cellular activities through hydrolysis of a phosphate group which releases energy (heat) to power endergonic reactions.
  13. What are some of the cellular activities powered by ATP?
    • Muscular contractions
    • Movement of chromosomes during cell division
    • Movement of structures within cells
    • Transport of substances across cell membranes
    • Synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones.
  14. What enzymes catalyze the synthesis of ADP? Of ATP from ADP?
    • ATPase catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and H2O into ADP, a phosphate group, and energy (heat). ***FORMS ADP
    • ATP synthase catalyzes the synthesis of ATP and H2O from ADP, a phosphate group, and energy (heat). ***FORMS ATP
  15. What is cellular respiration?
    • How cells get the energy to synthesize ATP.
    • The catabolism of glucose in cells.
    • Has two phases: anaerobic and aerobic
  16. What is anaerobic cellular respiration?
    • Anaerobic (CR) is a series of reactions that PARTIALLY catabolize glucose into a pyruvic acid, which do not require oxygen.
    • Each glucose molecule converted into a pyruvic acid molecule yields two molecules of ATP.
  17. What is anaerobic cellular respiration?
    • In the presence of oxygen, glucose is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water.
    • These reactions generate heat and 36 or 38 ATP molecules.

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