Meiosis and Mitosis

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Anonymous
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251667
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Meiosis and Mitosis
Updated:
2013-12-08 13:55:37
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Biology Meiosis Mitosis
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Biology
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meiosis and mitosis
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  1. What is mutation?
    A heritable change in genetic material
  2. Where does mutation occur?
    In the DNA
  3. What is a Point Mutation?
    A mutation that affect only a single base
  4. What is base substitution?
    a mutation that substitutes a single base for another
  5. What are frameshift mutations?
    Addition or deletion of a number of bases that are not in multiples of three
  6. What is a translocation mutation?
    Two chromosomes break and switch ends, creating chimeric genes
  7. What two mutations affect amino acid sequences?
    Silent and Missense mutations
  8. What is a silent mutation?
    Does not alter the amino acid sequence
  9. What is a missense mutation?
    Changes a single amino acid in a polypeptide
  10. What is a nonsense mutation?
    changes from a normal codon to a stop codon
  11. Where does mutation occur in Germ line cells?
    In the sperm and egg cell or the gamete
  12. Where does mutation occur in somatic cells?
    All other cells
  13. What are the two components of DNA repair?
    Detection or repair
  14. define direct repair?
    • A repair enzyme recognizes an incorrect structure in the DNA and directly converts it 
    • back
  15. Define Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER)
    Portion of DNA strand containing an abnormal nucleotide is removed and replaced
  16. Define Methyl-directed Mismatch Repair
    A base pair mismatch is detected, and a strand of surrounding DNA is removed and replaced
  17. What are Carcinogens?
    agents that increase the likelihood of developing cancer
  18. What are Activators?
    activator proteins stimulate RNA polymerase to initiate transcription
  19. What are Repressors? 
    repressor proteins inhibit RNA polymerase from initiating transcription
  20. What is the TATA box?
    5’ – TATAAAA –3’
  21. What is the Transcriptional Start Site
    Where Transcription starts
  22. What are the two Regulatory or Response Elements
    Enhancers or silencers
  23. Whats is Histone acetyltransferase
    attaches acetyl groups to histone proteins so they don’t bind DNA as tightly
  24. What are Karyotypes?
    Reveals number, size, and form of chromosomes in an actively dividing cell (22 Pairs)
  25. What are the three phases of Interphase?
    G1, S and G2
  26. What happens in the G1 phase of Interphase?
    First gap; cell grows and organelles duplicate
  27. What happens in the S phase of Interphase?
    Synthesis of DNA
  28. What happens in the G2 phase of Interphase?
    Second gap; cell makes proteins necessary for mitosis
  29. What is Interphase?
    Phase of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are decondensed and found in the nucleus
  30. What are the four phases of mitosis?
    PMAT- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
  31. What happens during Prophase?
    • Chromatids condense into highly
    • compacted structures - Pull together
  32. What happens during Metaphase?
    Organized into a single row – put into place by microtubules. Middle of the Cell
  33. What happens during Anaphase?
    Connections are broken between sister chromatids. Apart
  34. What happens during Telophase?
    Nuclear membranes now reform to produce two separate nuclei
  35. What happens in Prophase 1?
    Chromosomes condense, bivalents form and nuclear membrane break down.
  36. What happens in Metaphase 1?
    the bivalent pairs are organized along the metaphase plate as a double row
  37. What happens during Anaphase 1?
    Connections break, chromatids migrate to one pole
  38. What happens during Telophase 1?
    Chromatids decondense; nuclear membrane re-form
  39. What is a Euploid?
    Normal number of chromosomes
  40. What is a Polyploid?
    • 3 or more sets of chromosomes 
    • -Triploid (3n)
    • -Tetraploid (4n)
  41. What is an Aneuploidy?
    Abnormal number of a particular chromosome

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