Culture and Comm Final Chapters 9-11

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  1. Name the seven factors of interpersonal attraction
    • 1. similarity
    • 2. proximity
    • 3. reciprocity
    • 4. physical attraction
    • 5. evolutionary influences 
    • 6. social role
    • 7. average face effect
  2. Why is proximity associated with attraction? Three reasons.
    Availability, anticipation of interaction, mere exposure
  3. Halo effect
    people with one good characteristic (esp. physical attractiveness) are also rated positively in other dimensions
  4. Uncertainty reduction theory
    When interacting with a stranger, primary goal is to reduce uncertainty and increase predictability because uncertainty leads to anxiety.
  5. Assertiveness v. Responsiveness
    Assertiveness: make requests, ask questions, express feelings, initial and terminate conversation

    Responsiveness: sensitivity to others, providing feedback, comforting, listening
  6. Socio-communicative orientation
    two outlined types of communication style that affect how one communicates in different situations: assertiveness & responsiveness
  7. Conflict defined:
    • Incompatible goals
    • interdependence when incompatible goals
    • interaction: persue interests through interactions
  8. Principles of conflict
    • Can occur in any context
    • Can be positive
    • Communication plays a paradoxical role (requires communication to begin/end conflict)
  9. Microlevel of intercultural conflict
    The attitudes, dispositions and beliefs brought into conflict.

    • cognitive simplicity: stereotyping
    • in-group bias: ethnocentrism
    • insecurity/frustration: "they will steal jobs"
    • divergent behaviors
  10. Intermediary level of intercultural conflict
    Refers to the actual location and context of the conflict

    • -segregation/contact
    • -intergroup salience: physical/social differences
    • -status discrepancy: differences in status on cultural lines (white bosses, black employees)
  11. Macrolevel of intercultural conflict
    Factors that are out of the control of interactants

    • -history
    • -ideology: societal differences
    • -minority group strength:
  12. Face negotiation theory
    Explains face influences how people in different cultures manage conflict
  13. Facework
    The various ways one might deal with conflict and face
  14. Face negotiation theory applied to individualistic v. collectivistic cultures
    • individualistic: self-face
    • collectivistic: other and mutual face
  15. Conflict communication styles (chart)
    • s    dominating           integrating
    • e
    • l
    • f                compromising

    • f
    • a
    • c  avoiding                   obliging
    • e

                   other face
  16. What happens when an independent self-construal and an interdependent self- construal conflict occurs?
    • Independent: dominating
    • Interdependent: avoiding

  17. Perceptual context refers to what?
    Thinking style, argumentation, conflict resolution, decision-making
  18. Socio-relational context charactersitics
    family corporation culture

    face-to-face, personal

    reason to work hard: please elders
  19. Japanese management practices charactersitics
    • lifetime employment
    • seniority grading
    • long-term orientation (sacrifice short term loses for long term success)
    • Taiso (exercise together)
  20. German management practices
    • Honesty>politeness
    • private and formal (no open door policy)
    • High uncertainty avoidance
    • compartamentalization: doing one thing and doing it right (carS)
  21. Chinese management practices
    • Group harmony: Conflict avoided/mediated
    • High Power Distance
    • Guanxi: dependability, trust/respect
  22. Middle East business practices
    • high power distance
    • elaborate and ritualized communications: silence=something wrong, animated facial
    • HIGH contact culture: arab men hold hands
Card Set
Culture and Comm Final Chapters 9-11
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