Systemic Fungal Disease

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Author:
tsbatiste
ID:
251718
Filename:
Systemic Fungal Disease
Updated:
2013-12-09 19:06:44
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Canine Feline Final
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Description:
fungal diseases
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  1. Primary transmission of systemic mycoses
    inhalation or through wound contamination
  2. This is the name given to all mycoses due to where they are found.
    Saprophyte
  3. This refers to having properties of both sexes.
    dimorphic
  4. All fungi are dimorphic except:
    Cryptococcus
  5. Two most common symptoms of mycotic infections
    • Chronic cough
    • Persistent pyrexia
  6. Mycotic lesions are characterized by 3 things
    • abscessation
    • ulceration
    • nodular formation
  7. At what temperature do you see yeast-like buds on mycotic infection smears?
    37 degrees C
  8. At what temperature do you mycelial formation on a mycotic infection smear?
    25 degrees C
  9. What does mycelial look like?
    thread like hyphae (tree)
  10. A bad mycotic infection is said to be:
    fulminating
  11. North American Blastomycosis etiology
    Blastomyces dermatitis
  12. South American Blastomycosis etiology
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
  13. Clinical signs of N.A. Blastomycosis
    Respiratory infection > vascular system > subcutaneous skin, eye, skeleton
  14. Common name for Coccidioidomycosis in humans:
    San Juan Valley Fever
  15. Gender differences for N.A. Blastomycosis
    • Males are more likely to be infected
    • Females are more likely to survive
  16. The is the percentage of positive N.A. Blastomycosis dogs that present draining lesions on the ear pinnae
    20-50%
  17. This is the percentage of positive N.A. Blastomycosis dogs that present with Anterior Uveitis:
    40%
  18. Common name for N.A. Blastomycosis in humans:
    Gilchrist's Disease
  19. This is the percentage of N.A. Blastomycosis dogs that present with pneumonia, dry/harsh cough:
    85%
  20. Distinct isolates of blastomycosis are called:
    sub-types - there are 3
  21. Why is aerosol transmission of Blastomycosis unlikely?
    Although spores establish a primary infection in the lungs, they grow too large to enter the terminal airways
  22. This is the term for infection of the cells:
    cellulitis
  23. What pattern in the lungs is indicative of Blastomycosis?
    diffuse interstitial pattern of focal consolidations that looks like "gun shot"
  24. This is the one thing that is contraindicated in all systemic mycotic infections and immuno-suppressed animals:
    steroids
  25. Histoplasmosis etiology
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  26. Although also saprophytic, where is Histoplasma capulatum commonly found and why?
    In the dung of chickens and bats because sporulation accelerates in nitrogen rich organic medium
  27. This is considered the most common systemic fungal infection in So. TX.
    Histoplamosis
  28. What is characteristic of Histoplasmosis?
    halo-like buds in macrophages
  29. Where is the only place Histoplasmosis is not endemic?
    Antartica
  30. Primary symptom of intestinal form of Histoplasmosis
    Bloody diarrhea
  31. Primary symptom of lymphoidal form of Histoplasmosis:
    lymphadenopathy
  32. Sites of infection for Histoplasmosis and Coccidioidomycosis (B.L.M.)
    • Bronchial lymph nodes
    • Lungs
    • Mediastial lymph nodes
  33. The typical age range of susceptible dogs and cats
    2 months to 14 years
  34. Histoplasma capsulatum following inhalation does what?
    Converts to its active yeast phase at body temperature and quickly proliferates in tissues
  35. What species is more susceptible to Histoplasmosis?
    feline
  36. How can Histoplasma capsulatum affect the eyes?
    can cause Histoplasmosis-induced chorioretinitis
  37. Coccidioidomycosis etiology
    Coccidioides immitis
  38. Coccidioidomycosis distribution:
    SW United States
  39. This systemic mycotic infection etiology is considered haploid and has no known sexual state
    Coccidioides immitis
  40. What type soil does Coccidioides immitis thrive in?
    sandy, alkaline soil in high temperature areas with low annual rainfall usually seen at lower elevations
  41. When do bone lesions occur with Coccidioidomycosis?
    3-5 weeks after primary respiratory infection
  42. Most common route of infection of Coccidioidomycosis in humans
    Migrant workers on farms inhaling soil
  43. Cryptococcosis etiology
    • Cryptococcosis neoformans (common)
    • Cryptococcosis gatti
  44. Another name for Cryptococcosis
    European Blastomycosis
  45. Where is the most common place that Cryptococcosis spp are found?
    in pigeon excreta - not a natural infection, simply good medium for growth
  46. Cryptococcosis affects:
    • 1) respiratory tract - typically cats
    • 2) CNS
    • 3) opthalmic areas and cutaneous lesions (dogs)
  47. 3 ways to diagnose fungal infections:
    • 1) Skin test antigens - 1/10 ml intradermal ID injections - can cross react with other -  not recommended
    • 2) Serology - titers of circulating antibodies - false positives can occur with other exposures
    • 3) Microscopic identification - smear made from pus extracted from subcutaneous lesions - diagnosis of choice
  48. Fungizone
    type:
    non-proprietary name:
    route of administration:
    • Antifungal
    • Amphotericin B
    • Intravenous

    Note: must be mixed with dextrose 5% or it will precipitate out and cause nephrotoxicity
  49. KTZ
    type:
    non-proprietary name:
    route of administration:
    • antifungal
    • Ketaconazole
    • oral
    • Note: a human medicine in 200mg tablets that can be formulated for sm. animal use
  50. ITZ
    type:
    non-proprietary name
    route of administration
    • Antifungal
    • Itraconazole
    • Oral tablets

    Note: Favored D.O.C for dermatophytes
  51. Triazole
    type:
    non-proprietary name:
    route of administration:
    • antifungal
    • Fluconazole
    • Oral tablet

    Note: most effective for Cryptococcosis
  52. Which antifungal is used mainly to improve the effect of other antifungals
    Flucytosine
  53. European D.O.C. for dermatophytes
    Enilconazole
  54. What two types of infection are considered when pyrexia persists after antibiotic treatment?
    • Sytemic fungal infection
    • Protozoan infection
  55. Nocardiosis etiologies
    • Nocardia asteroides
    • Nocardia braziliensis

  56. What type of bacteria are the Nocardia species?
    Fungual-like bacteria
  57. What are the 3 forms of Nocardiosis?
    • Systemic - can look like distemper
    • Primary Respiratory - pleural effusions, pyothorax
    • Cutaneous - draining lesions
  58. Nocardiosis and public health concerns:
    Is reportable by not likely to pose a threat
  59. Diagnosis of Nocardiosis is by this:
    Tomato-soup with cream like exudates
  60. Actinomycosis etiology
    • Actinomyces bovis
  61. What type of bacteria is Actinomyces bovis?
    fungal-like bacteria
  62. This is the common name for Actinomycosis.
    "Wooden Tongue"
  63. 2 forms of Actinomycosis:
    • Respiratory - grass spears are inhaled
    • Penetrating - mandibular osteitis, underside cellulitis
  64. Diagnosis of Actinomycosis is by this:
    "sulfur granules" exudate
  65. 8 Dog Blood types New/old:
    • DEA-1 / A1
    • DEA-2 / A2
    • DEA-3 / B
    • DEA-4 / C
    • DEA-5 / D
    • DEA-6 / F
    • DEA-7 / Tr
    • DEA-8 / He
  66. Which canine blood type have the highest incidences?
    DEA 4 and 6 (98%)
  67. Which canine blood type has the lowest incidence?
    DEA 3
  68. Which canine blood types are the most reactive?
    DEA 1 and 2
  69. The 2 reasons why random blood transfusions should be avoided in canines:
    • 1) risk of sensitization and subsequent transfusion reaction
    • 2) shortened RBC life span
  70. This is the name specifically given to Coccidioides immitis spores in the soil.
    arthroconidia
  71. 3 differential diagnoses for Cryptococcosis
    • Rabies
    • Distemper
    • Encephalitis

    Note: history dependent
  72. This combination of antifungal drugs will be the least expensive for the client
    Ketaconazole and Amphotericin B
  73. What do all "azoles" have in common?
    they are all hepatotoxic
  74. The volume of transfused blood that a recipient can recieve:
    10 mL/lb
  75. The volume of blood and frequency that a donor dog can provide.
    10 mL/lb every 2 weeks

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