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A and p.txt
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The Digestive, Respiratory, and Urinary Powerpoints
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    • What are the three functions of the Respiratory System
    • Supply the blood with O2 and dispose of CO2 (cellular Respiration), olfaction, and speech
  1. Pulmonary Ventilation
    Moving air into and out of the lungs (Breathing)
  2. External Respiration
    The exchange of O2 and CO2 between the LUNGS and the BLOOD
  3. Internal Respiration
    O2 and CO2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
  4. The respiratory system and circulatory system overlap between...
    External and Internal Respiration
  5. What happens to air in the nasal cavity
    Air is warmed and moistened in the nasal cavity - (nasal conche cause air to swirl around
  6. The upper Respiratory system is...
    Anything above the trachea
  7. How many types of mucosa are in the nose?
    Two, Olfactory mucosa and Respiratory Mucosa
  8. Olfacory Mucosa
    Contains oflfactory epithelium, lines the superior region of nasal cavity, contains olfactory receptors
  9. Respiratory Mucosa
    Mucous and serous secretions contain lysozyme and defensins (immune activators) first defense against pathogens entering the respiratory system. Contain cilia that moves mucous posteriorly to throat. In lowere respiratory system, sensory nerve endings trigger sneezing.
  10. Does Respiratory mucosa change throughout the respiratory tract?
    Respiratory mucosa changes depending on the area of respiratory tract, the upper tract is lined by stratified epithelium for protection from pathogens, the lower tract contains simple epithelium to alllow for more diffusion
  11. What is the function of Nasal conchae?
    To increase air turbulance and to increase mucosal surface area. Causes air tow swirl around in nose and allows for more time to be warmed and moistened.
  12. What are the Paranasal sinuses
    They are four paired air filled sacs that surround the nasal cavity. The four are named frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid , and maxillary.
  13. What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?
    They secrete mucus, insolate sensitve structures, lighten skull and protect against impact
  14. What is Rhinitis?
    Inflamation of nasal mucosa commonly caused by allergies. Air in sinus gets absorbed by the mucosa and creates a vacuum causing sinusitis - headache due to pressure build up
  15. What are the three regions of the Pharynx?
    Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
  16. What are the tonsils?
    Collection of lymphoid tissue that signal white blood cells, FIr├čline of defense against pathogens. Tonsils are located in the PHARYNX
  17. What is a pathogen?
    Foriegn substance like a virus, bacteria, or pollen.
  18. Where are the Pharyngotympactic tubes located and what are their function?
    The pharyngotympatic tubes are located in the nasopharynx and drain fluid from ears. In case of Rhinitis they sut off which causes pressure build up in ears.
  19. What are the three tonsils and which ones are removed in case of tonsilitis?
    There is the Pharyngeal Tonsils, Palatine tonsils, and lingual tonsils. In case of tonsilitis the palatine tonsils are removed. In childeren the pharyngeal tonsils (aka adenoids) are also removed.
  20. Where does the separation of food and air occur?
    In the layngopharynx.
  21. What is the function of the epiglottis?
    Lifts up to allow food into the esophogus when swallowing. Air enters the trachea when epiglottis is closed.
  22. How many cartilages are located in the larynx?
    There are nine cartilages located in the larynx - hyaline cartilage
  23. What is the function of the Hyoid bone?
    Provides protection, Movemnet, and assists with voice production
  24. Thryroid Cartilage
    AKA the adams apple. Largest Cartilage in the larynx and it provides the most protection. Goes all the way around.
  25. Circoid Cartilage
    Just below the thyroid cartilage and a bit smaller. Provides protection
  26. What to parts of the larynx serve in voice production?
    The Vocal Fold and Vestibular Fold. The vestibular fold is most superior and does not produce any sound (false vocal chord). The vocal fold is inferior and is where sound is produced.
  27. What are the three functions of the Larynx?
    Provides Patent airway (patent means always open no matter atmospheric pressure), routes air and food into proper channels, and voice production
  28. What is the opening of the Larynx known as?
    The glottis. The epiglottis covers the glottis so food cannot enter the larynx.
  29. What amount of tension/airlow produces what pitch?
    The faster the air flow and more tense/ closer together the vocal fold, the higher the pitch.
  30. What is the function of a sphincter? (haha)
    To permit or inhibit the flow of a substance (liq or gas or solid)
  31. What is Valsalva's Maneuver?
    The vocal chords act as a sphincter (haha) to close the glottis and prevent exhalation. Intra-abdominal pressure rises to help abdominal contraction.
  32. What are the three layers of the trachea?
    The Mucosa (respiratory mucosa - goblet cells in the psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium), the Submmucosa (conective tissue that conteains seromucous glands that contain cells that secrete serous fluid and mucous), and the Adventina (connective tissure that serves as protection).
  33. What is the function of the trachealis muscle?
    The Trachealis muscle connects the posterior side of the trachea and serves as protectiona as well as allows for coughting to expell mucous containing pathogens from airways
  34. What is the shape of the cartilage that makes up the trachea?
    The cartilage is U shaped to allow for the esuophagus to expand into the trachea when swallowing food. The trachea splits into two primary bronchus when it reaches the lungs at a section called the Carina
  35. What is the function of the carina?
    It is a HIGHLY sensitive area where the trachea splits into primary primary bronchus. It is the highly sensitive because it is the last defense before air enters the lungs --> causes intense coughing if it detects a pathogen with its sensors and epithelium.
  36. What are the conducting zone structures?
    The conducting zone runs from the NAsal/oral cavity to the terminal bronchiole. Its function is the transport of air to respiratory zone.
  37. Where does the Respiratory zone start and what is its function?
    The respiratory zone starts at the respiratory bronchioles and functions in gas exchange.
  38. What is the difference between Terminal Bronchioles and Respiratory Bronchioles?
    Respiratory Bronchioles have the same diameter but a thinner wall. --> gas exchange vs transport
  39. What are characteristics of Alveoli?
    Small sacs that have a high surface area and are made of elastic fibers in order to help them maintain their shape. They are surrounded by pulmonary cappilaries.
  40. How many types of alveolar cells are there and what is their function?
    There are two types of alveolar cells. Type 1 composes the bulk of the alveolar wall and is made of simple squamous epithelium (diffusion). Type 2 alveolar cells are secretory cells that secrete surfactant(oil) and can have immune function.
  41. What is the main immune defense in the alveoli?
    The alveolar macrophage serves to kepp alveolar walls sterile.
  42. What is the function of alveolar pores?
    To connect all adjacent alveoli and to equalize pressure throughout the lungs.
  43. What is the space the capillaries and the alveoli?
    0.5 um
  44. What is the rate of diffusion in the alveoli?
    The diffusion rate is three times faster than blood flow. This means the blood flow can be tripled and our tissues will still get the oxygen they need. Allows body to have flucuating blood flow.
  45. How many Lobes does each lung have?
    The right lung has three lobes while the left lung only has two. The left lung is smaller die to cardica notch, an indentation to allow room for heart in the thoracic cavity.
  46. What are the divisions between lobes of the lung called?
    Fissures
  47. Where is the apex of the lung located?
    On the top
  48. What is the Hilum of the lung?
    Where primary bronchi, nerves, and lymphatic vessels enter the lung. (Always on the medial side)
  49. How many phases of pulmanery ventilation are there?
    Two, inspiration and expiration
  50. What are the serous membranes associated with the lungs?
    The visceral pleurae (covers the lungs), the parietal pleurae covers the thorcaic wall (deep surface), and the pleural ccavity in between that is filled with serous fluid.
  51. What is the function of the serous fluid in the pleural cavity?
    The serous fluid provides a seal between the serous membranes and creates a suction effect when pressures chcange to assist the lungs in expansion and recoil (surface tension)
  52. What is atmospheric pressure?
    The pressure exerted on the body by the enviroment. 760 mmHg at sea level.
  53. How is Respiratory pressure described relative to atmospheric pressure?
    Negative respiratory prressure is less than Patm, postive respiratory pressure is greater than Patm and zero respiratory pressure is equal to Patm. The lungs always want to return to zero respiratory pressure
  54. What happens to lung size as transpulmaonary pressure increases?
    Lung size increases as well
  55. What is intrapleural pressure always valued at?
    It is always negative. (-4 or 756 mmHg)
  56. Where is intrapulmonary pressure measured?
    In the alveoli (0 or 760 mmHg)
  57. What is Atlectasis?
    Lung collapse due to plugged bronchioles (collapsed alveoli) or pneumothorax (air in the pleural cavity) as a result in wound in parietal or rupture of visceral pleura. Treated by removing air with chest tubes and letting pleurae heal.
  58. What would an accumulation of fluid in the lungs cause?
    A positive intraplural pressure leading to lung collapse (atelectasis)
  59. What is Boyles Law?
    The relationship between pressure and the volume of a gas. (Inverse) PV=PV If the size of the lungs decrease durring expiration than the pressure inside will increase.
  60. What are the two major inspiratory muscles?
    The diaphragm and the external intercostals
  61. Durring inspiration, air fills the lungs until?
    Intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure.
  62. What does COPD stand for?
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diesease
  63. What specific pressure in the lungs is responsible for lungs filling back up with air?
    Transpulmonary pressure
  64. What three physical factors hinder pulmonary ventilation and requrire energy to overcome?
    Airway resistance, Alveolar surface tension, and lung compliance
  65. What is the relationship between flow, pressure, and resistance?
    Flow is equal to change in pressure over resistance
  66. What are the characteristics of Airway resitance?
    It is usually insignificant. Large diameter in conducting zone progresses to smaller diameter.
  67. Where is the least amount of airway resistance.
    In th respiratory zone resistance is zero because the membrane walls are so thini that gasses diffuse right out when pushed against the inside.
  68. Where is the greatest resistance in the airways?
    In the medium sized Bronchi
  69. What happens durring asthma attacks?
    Constriction of smooth muscles in small airways . Acute means over a small time but these attacks can stop ventilation.
  70. How doees epinepherine affect the bronchioles?
    Epinepherine dialates the bronchioles and reduces air resistance. It works synergytically with the heart and lungs so if you have increased blood flow you also have increased gas exchange.
  71. What is Surfactant and how does it affect the lungs?
    It is a detergent like lipid and protein complex produced by type II alveolar cells. It reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid and stops collapse. It reduces surface tension of fluid in sacs.
  72. What is infant respiratorry distress syndrome?
    When infants lack surfactant until around 2 months time and their alveoli collapse with each breath. Treated with a hyperbaric chamber with a pressure of -1 which causes air to always flow into the babies lungs.
  73. Lung Compliance is...
    The measure of change in lung volume (elasticity) The higher the lung compliance, the easier iit is to expand the lungs. It is normally high due to distensibility of lung tissue and alveolar surface tension. Higher=easier to breath
  74. COPD does what to lung compliance?
    It lowers it. Types of COPD include ephyzema, chronic bronchitis, and sometimes asthma
  75. What is Fibrosis?
    Any diesease that kills lung tissue and causes the buildup of non elastic scar tissue. Also reduced production of surfactant as well as decresed flexability of thoracic cage.
  76. What are the two organ groups of the digestive system?
    The alimentary canal (GI tract) accesory organs
  77. The digestive sysytem is akin to what delicious food item?
    A doughnut!
  78. All acessory digestive organs function as what?
    Glands, even the liver
  79. What are the six essential activites of the digestive process?
    Ingestion, propulsion, mechanical breakdown, digestion, absorbtion, defecation
  80. Digestion involves...
    Metabolic breakdown of food we ingest (involves enzymes)
  81. What is Peristalsis?
    Sequential contractions of adjacent segments of the alimentary canal that alternativly contract and relax to move food distally down the tract.
  82. What is segmentation
    Multiple contractions at the same time to push food down while beaking and mixing it. (Increases speed of digestion due to mmechanical breakdown)
  83. What are the two GI tract regulatory mechanisms?
    Mechano receptors/chemoreceptors, and intrinsic/extrinsic controls.
  84. What do mechanoreceptors measure?
    They detect stretch in the GI tract lining.
  85. What do chemoreceptors measure?
    Change in osmolarity (concentration of a solution) and pH. They also moniter digestive substrates and end products.
  86. What are intrinsic controls of the GI tract?
    Short reflexes from the intrinsic nerve plexuses (gut brain). They are located in the lining of GI tract.
  87. What are short reflexes?
    Intrinsic controls that respond to stimuli in the GI tract. Are quick because of close proximity to organs. Respond to intrinsic nerve plexuses (gut brain)
  88. What are Extrinsic controls?
    Responses outside or in the central nervous system or autonomic nerves by way of long reflexes.
  89. What are long reflexes?
    Responses from extrinsic nerve plexuses and respond to stimuli outside of the nervous system. Called long because they are sent to the brain and then the GI tract.
  90. What can trigger the extrinsic controls?
    Sight, smell, taste, thought of food. (Use long reflexes)
  91. What can trigger intrinsic controls?
    Internal signals are only occuring in the process of digestion.
  92. How can mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors effect change?
    Through short reflexes to the intrinsic nerve plexus (gut brain) or through long reflexes through VISCERAL afferents to the central nervous system. Long reflexes return to the intrinsic nerve plexus by way of extrinsic visceral efferents.
  93. How does the intrinsic nerve plexus respond to reflexes.
    They effect the appropriate change through effectors (smooth muscle or glands) which elicit a response or change in contractile or secretory activity
  94. What is the function of salivary glands?
    To secrete saliva.
  95. What is the function of saliva?
    Saliva can cleanse the mouth (macrophages, lysosomes, and enzymes in saliva can breakdown many things), start to dissolve food (begin), and can moisten or compact food into bolus.
  96. What are the two tyoes of salivary glands?
    Intrinsic Salivary glands (housed in the oral cavity) and Extrinsic salivary glands ("outside" oral cavity).
  97. What is the role of Intrinsic Salivary glands?
    Small and scattered all over mouth. Play a minor role in digestion.
  98. What kind of role do extrinsic salivary glands play in digestion?
    Play a major role
  99. What are the three extrinsic salivary glands?
    The Parotid gland, the submadibular gland, and the sublingual gland.
  100. What are the characteristics of the parotid gland?
    The gland is anterior to the ear and secretes saliva through the parotid duct. Mumps is due to inflamation of the parotid gland. (Par=near, otic=ear)
  101. What are the characteristics of the submandibular salivary gland?
    It is the most inferior salivary gland and had ducts that insert on the frenulum of the tongue
  102. What are the characteristics of the sublingual salivary gland?
    It is located under the tongue and has multiple ducts to the oral cavity (10-12)
  103. What are the two types of secretory cells?
    Serous cells and mucouas cells.
  104. What is the function of serous cells?
    Type of secretory cell that secretes serous that is watery, contains enzymes, ions, and a bit of mucin.
  105. Where are Serous cells found?
    The Parotid, and submandibular glands are composed of serous cells as well as most intrinsic glands.
  106. Where are mucous secretory cells found?
    The sublingual gland is mostly composed of mucous cells.
  107. What is the water content of saliva?
    97-99.5% water and it is slightly acidic.
  108. What is Saliva composed of?
    Electrolytes, salivary amylase (amylase digests CHO), lingual lipase (lipase digests lipids), mucin (lubricant that forms a thick mucus in the oral cavity and hydrates food), metabolic wastes (urea and uric acid in the mouth), and Lysozyme, IgA (antibody), and defensins (immune cells).
  109. What electrolytes are found in saliva?
    Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3 (bicarbonate decrease pH in digestive system)
  110. What is the function of esophageal glands and where are they located?
    These glands are located in the submucosa and secrete mucus to aid in bolus movement
  111. What are the changes in the muscularis externa in the esophagus?
    Superiorly= skelatal, middle = mixed, inferiorly = smooth. Major change from voluntary control to involuntary
  112. What is the most outermost layer of the esophagus in the thoracic cavity?
    The adventina is the outermost layer instead of serosa when esophagus is in the thoracic cavity.
  113. What is deglutition?
    Deglutition is the act of swallowing.
  114. How long does it take solid foods to reach the stomach?
    8 seconds
  115. How long does it take liquids to reach the stomach from the esophagus?
    1-2 seconds
  116. What structures does swallowing involve?
    Oral cavity structures, pharynx, and the esophagus
  117. What does the word buccal indicate?
    That the it is occuring in the oral cavity
  118. What occurs durring the buccal phase of swallowing?
    Voluntary contraction of the tongue
  119. What occurs in the phayrngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing?
    Begins when food enters the pharynx and is involuntary, primarily controlled by the vagus nerve
  120. What occures in the oral cavity durring the buccal phase?
    During the buccal phase, the upper esophageal sphincter (haha) is contracted. The tongue presses against the hard palate forcing the food bolus into the oropharynx
  121. When does the pharyngeal-esophageal phase begin?
    When the uvula and larynx rise to prevent food from entering respiratory passageways. The upper esophageal sphincter (haha) relaxes, allowing food to enter the esophagus.
  122. What is the sphincter (haha) at the end of the esophagus that allows food to enter the stomach?
    The Gastroesophageal sphincter. (Only relaxes when allowing food through)
  123. What region is located at the entrance of the stomach?
    The cardia region is where food enters the stomach. Named for the cardia orifice which is the opening of the stomach
  124. What is the fundus of the stomach?
    The fundus is the dome shape at the top of the stomach. It fits around the diaphragm and ends when the curvature stops
  125. What are the three sections of the plyorus region of the stomach?
    The pyloric antrum, the pyloric canal, and the pyloric sphincter (haha)
  126. What is the function of the rugae of mucosa in the stomach?
    The rugae are folds that increases surface area for more nutrient absorption as well as allowing for the stomach to expand without increasing pressure.
  127. What is pertioneum?
    Serous membranes that form the Greater Omentum, Lesser Omentum, and the Mesentary.
  128. What is the greater Omentum?
    Very large serous membrane that connects the greater curvature of the stomach to the spleen and the transverse colon. It also contains fat and LYMPHNODES.
  129. How many cell types can be found in Gastric glands (within mucosa)?
    Four. Mucous neck cells, Parietal cells, chief cells, and enteroendocrine cells.
  130. What are mucous neck cell?
    Cells in gastric glands that secrete a thin mucous. (Not very important)
  131. What is the function of parietal cells?
    These cells are found in gastric glands and secrete HCl (reduces pH), intrinsic factor (required for B12 absorption in small intestines), and activate pepsin (big role in denaturing proteins)
  132. Why is intrinsic factors role in digestion and what cell secretes it?
    Parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor. It coats chime in stomach so that once it enters the small intestine B12 can be absorbed.
  133. How do parietal cells affect the pH of the stomach?
    Parietal cells secrete HCl which lowers the pH of the stomach 1.5 to 3.5 points. PH can be as low as 1 in the stomach. This is important for denaturing proteins.
  134. What is the main role of parietal cells?
    It has a big role in the breakdown or denaturing of proteins through the secretion of HCl and the activation of pepsin.
  135. What is the function of chief cells?
    They secrete pepsinogen, which is the incative form of pepsin and must be activated by the precence of pepsin or HCl. They also secrete lipases and enzymes for the breakdown of proteins and fats.
  136. What is the function of enteroendocrine cells?
    Their function is paracrin signaling, they act kind of like chemoreceptors and signal for hormones to be produced, especially gastrin.
  137. This is not a flashcard, just a reminder to study the chart on slide 16
    Good luck on your test!
  138. What is emesis?
    The act of vommiting
  139. What homeostatiic imbalances is emesis caused by?
    Extreme stretching from too much food entering the small intestine and intestinal irritants.
  140. What does excessive vommiting lead to?
    Dehydration, then electrolyte imbalances and than acid-base imbalances.
  141. What are the three parts of the small intestine?
    The Doudenum, the jejunum (have you ever been puched in the jejunum jackie <-- haha), and the Ileum.
  142. How long is the small intestine and what genders iis usually longer?
    The small intestine is around 7 meters long and women usually have longer ones than men. <-- why girls dont poop
  143. How long is the doudenum?
    25 cm
  144. How long is the jejunum?
    Around 2.5 m
  145. How long is the Ileum?
    3.5 m
  146. What is the function of the circular folds of the small intestine?
    These are permanent folds in the small intestine that are around 1 cm deep. Force chime to slowly spiral through the lumen. MAin function is to increase absorption.
  147. What happens to permanent folds in the ileum?
    They become less abundent compared to those in the doudenum
  148. What is the function of Villi?
    Found in the small intestine, extensions (~1mm high) of mucosa with capillary bed and lacteal for absorbtion. Composed of many microvilli.
  149. What is the function of microvilli?
    Known as the brush border, they contain enxymes for carbohydrate and protein digestion. Many microvilli make up one villi?
  150. What is the function of Peyer's Patches?
    They are lymphoid follicles in the mucosa of the ileum and extend into the submucosa. They protect the intestine against bacteria by generating immune responses.
  151. What is the functions of B lymphocytes?
    To signal for the production of IgA or a type of antibody. This is found in the lamina propria
  152. What is the function of Duodenal (Brunner's) glands?
    To secrete alkaline mucus to neutralize acidic chime.
  153. What are the four main functions of the kidney?
    Regulating total water volume and total solute concentration, Regulating ECF ion concentrations, Ensuring acid-base balance, and the removal of metabolic wastes, toxins, and drugs. Overall, they remove things from the plasme.
  154. What are nephrons?
    Structural and functional units that form urine.
  155. How many nephrons are in each kidney?
    Over one million per kidney
  156. What are the two main parts of a nephron?
    The renal corpuscle and the renal tubule.
  157. What does the word renal indicate.
    Kidney
  158. What is the function of the glomerulus.
    Is a capillary bed in the glomerular capsule that forces solutes smaller than proteins out to form filtrate.
  159. What is the characteristics of the glomerular capsule?
    A hollow sac surrounding the glomerulus.
  160. What are the three parts of the Renal Tubule?
    The proximal convaluted tubule, the loop of henle, and the distal convaluted tubule.
  161. What is the nephrons job?
    To make filtrate.
  162. Study slide 12 of kidney tubule
  163. What are the two classes of nephrons?
    Cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons.
  164. What are the caracteristics of cortical nephrons?
    These reside almost entirely in the renal cortex.
  165. What percent of nephrons are cortical nephrons?
    85%
  166. What are the characteristics of juxtamedullary nephrons.
    These have a long loop of henle that invades the medulla. They are important to the production of concentrated urine.
  167. Why does the Glomerulus have high pressure?
    This is a result of afferent arterioles entering the glomerulus with a larger diameter than the efferent arterioles leaving it. This is very important to kidney function.
  168. What are peritubular capillaries associated with?
    Cortical nephrons
  169. What is the term vasa recta in reference to?
    To the capillary bed.
  170. What is the result of glomerular filtration?
    It produces cell and protein free filtrate
  171. What occurs durring tubular reabsorbtion in the kidneys?
    It selectivly returns 99% of substances from filtrate to the blood.
  172. What occurs durring tubular secretion?
    The kidneys selectively moves substances from blood to filtrate.
  173. How are the kidneys involved with the blood?
    They take everything out of the blood plasma and replaces it with what the body needs at that moment. They make sure that the pH balance of the blood is just right.
  174. What does protein in the urine indicate?
    It is a sign that something is degrading in glomerulus pores that allow larger particles through. This would lead to kidney failure.

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