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Name some problem of the digestive tract
- Inablity to regurgitate
- Entrance and exit from Cecum
- Sensitivity to bacteria
Why is the Inability to regurgitate a problem?
- problem if horse has gorged itself or eaten something should not have eaten.
- Cannot get rid of. Also, cannot get rid of gas build-up in stomach through mouth.
Why is the Entrance and Exit of the Cecum a problem?
Entrance and exit so close together can cause problem with moving food through to colon.
What is the Pacemaker and why is it a problem?
- Located between cecum and colon. Regulates the speed of passage of ingesta.
- Can be thrown off by change in feed then get diarrhea.
Why are Carbohydrates a problem?
- If there are too many carbs in the cecum they become hard to digest. The bacteria cause gas to form and the gas causes Lactic Acid to form.
- Lactic acid lowers the pH and kills good bacteria and these give off endotoxins which possibly affect the blood flow to hooves thus causing laminitis
Where and what is a soluble broken down into?
Broken down in the small intestine to glucose
What and where Are Insoluble carbs broken down into?
Broken down in the Cecum where fermented and broken down into VFA (Valitile fatty acids)
What are Flexures?
Sharp turns in the digestive tract
What is Colic?
What are the 3 types of Colic?
What causes Spasmodic Colic?
- due to spasms of intestinal tract. Similar to indigestion in people.
- Can be severe pain but usually mild to moderate. Not usually life threatening.
- gas and sand sub category
What causes Impaction?
- blockage of tract with feed or foreign material (sand, rubber).
- If complete where blocks passage of ingestion and gas, very painful and may need immediate surgery.
- If gas can pass and blockage caused by normal ingesta, pain moderate then usually clear up with medical trt.
What causes Incarceration Colic?
loop of intestine becomes entrapped within the normal or abnormal structure within abdominal cavity
What are the symptoms of colic?
restless, sweating, pawing, rolling, kicking at belly
What are some treatments for Colic?
- Stomach tube
- Mineral Oil
- Intravenous fluids
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- possibly Antibiotics
What is Founder?
- Founder is a common and very painful condition affecting the feet of horses.
- Occurs when there is inflammation of the laminae (folds of tissue connecting the pedal bone to the hoof)
What hooved does Laminitis affect more offten?
What are some risk factors for Laminitis?
- Heavy breeds
- high nutritional level
- grain binge
- black walnut bedding
- working on hard surface
What are signs of Acute Laminitis?
- Heat in feet
- Increased digital pulse
- Pain in toe region
- Saw horse stance
What are some signs of Chronic Laminitis?
- Rings in hoof wall that become wider as they are followed from toe to heel
- Bruised soles
- Widened white line
- Flat feet
- Thick cresty neck
- Dished hooves
What are some treatments for Laminitis?
- Diagnosing and treating the primary problem
- Dietary restrictions
- Mineral Oil
- Administering fluids or drugs
- Stabling the horse on soft ground
What is an Enterolith?
Stone made of composite magnesium, Ammonium and phosphate