Chapter 12

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  1. Genetic material must:
    • Store information
    • be stable enough to be replicated
    • undergo rare changes mutations
  2. DNA is a nuckeic acid made up of_______
  3. Nucliotides consist of...
    • 5 carbon sugar-deoxyribose
    • phosphate groupĀ 
    • N-containing base-Adenine Guanine Cytosine thymine
  4. Chargoff's rules-
    • Amount of A,T,C, and G varies between species
    • the amount of adenine equals the amout of thymine and the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine
    • 50% of bases are purines and 50% are pyrimidines
  5. purines-
    A and G- 2 carbon rings
  6. pyrimidines-
    C and T- 1 carbon ring
  7. Double Helix-
    2 strands composed of a sugar and phosphate backbone with N-containing bases paired on the inside-2 strands spiral or twist around each other
  8. adenine always pairs with_____
  9. Guanine always pairs with _____
  10. DNA replication-
    During replication each old strand of the parent molecule serves as a template for a new strand in a daughter molecule
  11. Steps of replication-
    • unwinding-the weak hydrogen bonds are broken
    • complementary base pairing- A pairs with T and C pairs with G
    • joining-nuckeotides join to form a new strand
  12. semi-conservative replication-
    because each daughter molecule has one old strand and one new strand
  13. One Gene-One polypeptide-
    each gene contains the info for making one protien
  14. RNA-
    Ribonucleic Acid
  15. DNA-
    Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
  16. Differences between DNA and RNA-
    • different sugar-ribose
    • different base-uracil replaces thymine
    • different number of strands-1 single straight strand
  17. Messenger RNA-mRNA
    takes a message fromt he DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
  18. Ribosomal RNA-rRNA
    along with protiens, makes up the ribosomes
  19. transfer RNA-tRNA
    carries amino acids to the robosomes
  20. Gene expression-
    the process by which a gene produces a product usually a protien
  21. gene-
    a sequence of nucleotide bases that codes for a product usually a protien
  22. transcription-
    occurs in the nucleus. process of making mRNA copy from DNA. similar to DNA replication bc one strand of DNA serves as the template for the mRNA formation
  23. translation-
    occurs in the cytoplasm. process by which the sequence of nucleotide bases in mRNA determines the sequence of the amino acids in a protein
  24. genetic code-
    consists of 64 three base "words" called codons.
  25. codons-
    3 nucleoitides of mRNA that code for a specific amino acid or the start/stop of translation
  26. 9 steps of gene expression-
    • 1.DNA in nucleus serves as template for its own replication and for mRNA during transcription
    • 2.mRNA is processed before leaving nucleus and the introns(portions dont leave nucleus) are removed
    • 3.When mRNA is formed it has codons
    • 4.mRNA moves to cytoplasm and becomes assoiciated with ribosomes
    • 5.tRNA with anti codons carries amino acids to mRNA and ribosome
    • 6.anticodon-codon complimentary base pairing occurs
    • 7.peptide cahin is transferred from resident tRNA to new tRNA
    • 8.tRNA departs and will soon pick up another amino acid
    • 9.continues till reach a stop codon than releases a protien
  27. polysome/polyribosome-
    a string of robosomes simultaneously reading different regions of the smae mRNA strand
  28. mutations-
    perm. change in the DNA either chromosome or gene
  29. gene mutation-
    a change in the nucleotide sequence
  30. frameshift mutations-
    a nucleotide is inserted or deleted
  31. point mutations-
    a change in a single nucleotide base
  32. mutagens-
    enviromental substances that cause mutations
Card Set:
Chapter 12
2013-12-08 21:51:42
Molecular Biology Gene

BIO 103
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