Geog 112: Week 9

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  1. Pygmy Tarsier
    • -Oriental realm
    • • Not sure how many left because number is so small
    • • Is smaller than regular tarsier/pretty darn small
    • • Can fit in your hand
    • • Losing habitat because they are in conflict zone and war is never good for any animal at all
    • • Other problem is that they are cute so they become part of the pet trade
  2. Javan Slow Loris
    • -Oriental realm 
    • • Habitat loss, deforestation, pet trade,
    • • Are endangered because of traditional medicine
    • • Something about their teeth
    • • People like to get their teeth, grind them up, and use them for medicinal reasons
  3. Tonkin Snub Nosed Monkey
    • • Not going to make it out of this century
    • • Fewer than a hundred left
    • • Used in traditional medicines as well
    • • BUSH MEAT because it’s a medium body sized animal
    • • Medium and large sized monkeys are used in bush meat trade
    • • Lost habitat due to timber, and cultivation
    • • Live in forest of developing or struggling nations and it really sufor these little guys
  4. Pig Tailed Snub Nosed Monkey Langur
    • -Oriental Realm 
    • • Medium body so again bush meat
    • • 3 other species of Langur that have same basic body structure that are also endangered and on the list
  5. Gray-shanked Douc Monky
    • -Oriental Realm 
    • • Very attractive monkey and thought to be extinct and saw a few but now in trouble again
  6. Eastern Black Crested Gibbon
    • -Oriental Realm 
    • • Is struggling with gene collapse, and not healthy enough to survive as a species anymore
    • • Inbreeding makes them more likely to catch diseases and mutations
  7. San Martin Titi Monkey
    • -Neotropics
    • -Very Popular as pets
    • -considered bush meat
  8. Capuchin monkey
    • -neotropics
    • -used as pets and much thicker fur than other capuchins
  9. Northern Brown Howler
    • -Neotropics 
    • -Shows us these last three so we can understand that an animal can seem very common because you see it all the time, but it is a different species
    • o When an animal divides off and branches off into another species it is frequently that branch that doesn’t have a long population of animals to stir with
    • o Bc of deforestation habitat fragmentation , human encroachment, that is not going to impact just howler monkeys or whatever
    • o They just so happen to be on the list of 25 most endangered primates
  10. Neotropical Realm: Where
    • • South and central America through the Yucatan Peninsula, includes Caribbean islands • All of South America and central America and first third of Mexico,also Cuba and all of the islands.
    • • North -> South orientation is the most important thing for thisrealm
  11. Neotropical: Climate, vegetation
    • • Tropical rainforest
    • • Coast
    • • Desert
    • • Grassland: tropical, temperate, flooded, mountain
    • • Mangrove
    • • Forest = Broadleaf, tropical dry, coniferous
    • • Not like Palearctic that was from East to west the Neotropic you are going from well above the equator to all the way down to 60degrees south
    • • That is a really long way
    • • The realm runs from where there is direct sunlight 12 hours a day to a realm where you only get direct sunlight certain times of theyear
    • • All these lions of latitudes, things are going to change
    • o It can be very cold, to being consistently warm
    • o To a very consistent type of temperature year round
    • o And everything in between ! Which means there a lot of niches and adaptations
  12. Neotropical Realm: Plate Tectonics
    • • Plates go underneath each other
    • • Seduction of plates created Andes and all of this crazy geographic features and niches
    • • Spent a lot of its history as a an island directly after Pangea
    • • All the animals on this land mass were able to develop in same rather unique that animals adapt on an island
    • Then it stopped being island
    • • When strait of panama developed and volcano erupted
    • • It connected south America to North America
    • • This allowed for an exchange of animals
    • • and suddenly now there’s a way to expand north and get off this island
    • • or for other animals to expand south in your territory and perhaps take over your territory and push some animals out of their niche
  13. 5 key things about Neotropics
    • 1. North south
    • 2. Wide range of latitude
    • 3. Strait of panama
    • 4. Was island for a long time
    • 5. Plate tectonics
  14. Great American Biotic Interchange
    • • Lots of animals made it from the north to south
    • • Animals where able to come down to neotropics and establish themselves
    • • The success rate was good for a high percentage of animals (dogs, ungulates, camels, bears)
    • • All came south and did well
  15. Going from South to North
    • o Only two animals to make it from south to north and survive where the porcupines and the opossums
    • o A whole bunch of species tried but didn’t make it. They got there for a little while and couldn’t make it
    • o Something going from south to north was much more difficult
    • o Anything going from North to south and tried to go back northdidn’t make it
  16. Going North to South
    • • Large bodied cats, camels, bears, horses, did well
    • • Horses = started in north America did well south tried to return and didn’t make it
  17. Atlantic Forest
    • o Couple of critically endangered invertebrate species in the area
    • o Mix of vegetation has changed a lot and so have the animals that live there
    • o Two main ecosystems within this one region
    • o You have coastal Atlantic forest and then you have Inland area (interior area) is closer to Argentina
    • o In this area you have 15% of birds that are endemic
    • -70% endemic mammals
    • -The Maned sloth
    • -Arboreal Mous
    • -Tamarins
    • -Over 450 amphibian species and half are endemic to this area
  18. Red billed Curassow
    • -Neotropics:Atlantic Forest
    • -Fewer than 200 left and is a ground dwelling bird
  19. Brazilian Merganser
    • -Atlantic forest 
    • -One of the most 6 endangered birds and less than 200 left
  20. Red Tailed Amazon parrot
    • -Atlantic forest
    • -Endangered bc they are very popular in the pettrade
    • -Only 1 out of 10 parrots for pet trade survive andare hard to keep in captivity
  21. Red browed Amazon
    • -Atlantic forest
    • -Extinct basically
  22. Cerrado
    • o Takes in 21% of brazil and no ones really heard of it
    • o Strangely enough is a lot like California, it has same sort of array of grout and fire adaptive plant species
    • oPrimarily woodland savannah and dry forest
    • o Its got an interesting sort of situation because although it has fire tolerant plants, it does receive a fair amount of rainfall for 6-7 months of the year
    • o When it is NOT raining it is NOT RAINING (can get extremely dry)
    • o Just like California in its dry season it is fire season and things catch on fire
    • o Not that many endemic species ! Over 200 mammal species
    • • Brazilian Tapir" Have spotted babies for
  23. Brazilian Tapir
    • -Cerrado
    • -Have spotted babies for camouflage but turn brown as they grow up
    • -Try to scare predators off by stepping on feet and whistling
    • -No one knows why they whistle
  24. Maned Wolf
    • -Cerrado 
    • o Don’t have a lot of body fat and are unique as a mammal because they cant regulate there body temperature regular animals do
    • o In hotter months they become nocturnal
    • o Largest member of the dog family in south America
    • o Although it is called a wolf , its not a wolf at all it is closer to a fox
    • o Only about 50 pounds with giant mane like a lion
  25. Giant Armadillo
    • -Cerrado 
    • o Has changed behavior bc its physically not adapted to environment is living in
    • o Don’t have a lot of body fat and are unique as a mammal bc they cant regulate there body temperature regular animals do
    • o In hotter months they become nocturnal
  26. Tropical Andes
    • o North south orientation causes insane amount of biodiversity
    • o A lot of different niches as well
    • o Runs along Andes mountains
    • o Lots of niche verities because of different latitudes
    • o And plate tectonics, how the Andes was formed
    • o Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Boliviao Got tropics, snow, deserts,
    • o Very large too
    • o 1/3 of bird species are endemic
    • o and more endemic bird species in Andes than there are in the rest of the world
    • -greatest diversity of hummingbirds
    • -Giant Hummingbird
    • -70/75 endemic mammals are endangered
  27. Andean Condor
    • -largest flying birds on earth and hunted to extinction
    • -Has made a comeback
  28. Yellow tailed monkey
    • -Andes
    • -Flagship species
    • -it was believed to be extinct but rediscovered in 1974 
    • -actually largest endemic mammal of Peru and only found in Peru
  29. Spectacled Bear
    • -Andes
    • -only bear found in Neotropics
  30. Camelids
    • -Llama 
    • -Alpaca
    • -Vicuna
    • -Guanaco
  31. Biggest Hotspot in world for Amphibians
    • -Tropical Andes
    • -670 are endemic to this area
    • -over 1000 amphibian species
    • -Poison Dart frogs
    • -great interest in them for medicinal purpose
    • -area is a hotspot because of them
    • -bio indicators
  32. Mesoamerica
    • o Very specific and it goes a lot higher than scientists say
    • o The whole Yucatan peninsula and all the way to PANAMA
    • o THE LARGEST hot spot in this realm, and third largest hotspot in the world
    • o Unbelievable amount of biodiversity bc of great American biotic interchange
    • o And bc it is relatively new part of the world in grand scheme of things (developed from volcanic activity) lots of niche changes and biodiversity
    • o From Honduras to Panama, every inch of it is a hotspot
    • o 65% of the amphibians and 67% of freshwater fish found in this region are endemic
    • o There is said to be over 1000 Endemic species across this area
  33. Mesoamerica endemic species
    • -Capuchin
    • -Howler Monkey
    • -Spider Monkey
    • -Squirrel Monkey
    • -Tapir = smaller than one from cerrado
    • -Pocket gophers
    • -Bangs Mountain squirrel = only 6 inches long
    • -Every biome is here so you got all of these incredible niches which is why we have this diversity
  34. Golden Toad
    • • Went extinct in one year
    • • The fact that here’s this amazing iconic species and they just went extinct all of a sudden
    • • A good indicator of delicate situation that amphibians are in across the world
    • • Indicator of really the first time that people started thinking aboutthe fact that bc an amphibian has such special skin, it is a indicator of bad climatic conditions way before any one else would know
    • • Once your frogs start to have problems you know you need to startinvestigating
  35. Amazon forest
    • -is not a hotspot (yes there is a huge amount of biodiversity in amazon, and it is incredibly important to globes help, but it does not meet the criteria of a bio hotspot)
    • -o Isn’t under as much pressure as other areas are
Card Set:
Geog 112: Week 9
2013-12-08 23:35:22

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