Oncology

Card Set Information

Author:
vanwin
ID:
251760
Filename:
Oncology
Updated:
2013-12-08 20:24:06
Tags:
medsurge nursing oncology
Folders:
MEDSURGE_E1
Description:
nursing, uttyler, don't go here
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  1. benign vs malignant cancerinva
    • benign: well differentiated
    • malignant: pooly/ well differentiated, ability to invaed, uncontroled and spread
  2. primary causes of cancer (6)
    • tobacco
    • virus
    • alcohol
    • diet
    • sunlight/ radiation
    • sexual behavior
  3. breast cancer dx testing
    • annual mamogram at 40
    • CBE Q2-3Y 20-39 then annually
    • SBE monthly after 20
  4. Colorectal cancer dx testing (3)
    • FOBT( fecal occult blood)
    • flex sigmoidoscope Q5Y
    • barium enema Q5 yrs
    • colonoscopy Q10Y
  5. Urterine/cervical cancer screening (3)
    • begin at 21 -30 annual pap
    • >30 Q2-3Y
    • >70 n more
  6. Goal of cancer tratment
    (3)
    • cure
    • control spread
    • palliation
  7. Role of surgery in Oncology (5)
    • diagnose
    • treat
    • palliation
    • supportive
    • reconstruction
  8. External radiation
    • patient is not source of radiation
    • patient goes to clinical site to have proceedure
  9. internal radiation
    • or brachy therapy
    • not used for palliation
    • patient is source of radiation!
  10. Side effects of chemo vs radiation therapy
    chemo: depedent on drug & dose, systemic *bone marrow suppression

    Radiation: occur within the cells/ fied that receives does, temporary or permanent
  11. Acute Cancer Treatment Side effects (3)
    • within first 6 months
    • affects rapidly dividing cells
    • may be repaired
  12. chronic cancer treatment therapy side effects
    • occurs 6 months to a year after therapy
    • usually permanent
    • affects more slowly developing cells, muscles & vessles
  13. Bone marrow suppression in RT (3)
    • depedent on field
    • Weekly CBC
    • look for s&s of infection
  14. Bone marrow supression in chemotherapy
    • *most important dose limiting factor
    • most common side effects
  15. Normal blood cell life
    • WBC: 3-5
    • Platelets: 10
    • RBC: 120
    • *bone marrow supression will affect the most rapid dividing cells first
  16. Nadir
    • when neutrophils are at the lowest
    • 7-14 days after chemo
  17. ANC (absolute neutrophil count)
    <500 chemo will be held
  18. Signs of septic shock; early
    early: mild fever, change in mental status
  19. Late signs of septic shock (5)
    • fever
    • cool, clammy skin
    • decrease output
    • hypotension
    • anxiety
  20. Platelet counts
    • normal 150-400
    • <50 at risk
    • <20: risk of spontaneous bleeding
  21. thrombocytopenia safety precautions (6)
    • no rugs
    • comfortable shoes that fit well
    • electric razors
    • nail filers no clippers
    • use draw sheets
    • use IV instead of IM/SQ
  22. Constipation nursing implications (4)
    • avoid straining/valsalva
    • avoid enema/supositories
    • use stool softeners & high fiber diet
    • ambulate
  23. Oncology SE; epistaxis (5)
    • avoid irritants
    • avoid blowing nose
    • correct sneezing
    • high fowler's
    • ice packs & nasal packing
  24. Oncology treatment SE; fatigue, nursing implications (4)
    • provide emotional support
    • look at choping mechanisms
    • look for possibility of drop outs
    • education!
  25. Oncology patient GI SE
    • xerostomia ( dry mouth)
    • radiation caries
    • N/V
    • anorexia
    • mucositis
    • constipation
  26. Xerostomia in oncology patients nursing implications
    • *mostly caused by radiation, r/ amount of glands irritated
    • saliva substitute
    • water
    • hard candies
    • oralcare b4 &afer meals, & at bed time
  27. N/V nursing implications for oncology patients (3)
    • give antiemetics round the clock
    • 30-60 mins before chemo/radiation
    • wait 3-4 hrs after therapy to eat
  28. Oncology SE, anorexia diet regimine
    • high calorie
    • high protein
    • high carbs

    • avid gas forming foods - beans sodas& broccoli
    • marinate meat in fruit juices
  29. HSCT ( hemopoetics stem cell transplant)
    types
    • autologous: from self
    • syngeneic: identical twin
    • allogeneic: matched, relative/bank
  30. long term effects of cancer treatment (5)
    • secondary malignanceis
    • radiation late effects
    • sterility
    • psychosocial
    • chronic cancer
  31. oncologic emergencies (6)
    • superior vena cava syndrome
    • spinal cord compression
    • SIADH
    • Hypercalemia
    • septic shock
    • tumor lysis syndrom
  32. Superior Vena cava syndrome
    direct tumor invasion, thrombus in vessel

    *impaired venous return from superior vena cava
  33. Spinal cord compression S&S
    • minor changes in motor & back pain
    • paralysis

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