Scholarly Inquiry

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mpalmer4
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251766
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Scholarly Inquiry
Updated:
2013-12-08 18:44:47
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29 30 34 35
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Ch. 29, 30, 34, 35
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  1. What organization is responsible for both the promotion of the responsible conduct of research and the resolution of allegations of research misconduct?
    Office of Research Integrity
  2. What is the ORI?
    Office of Research integrity - responsible for both the promotion of the responsible conduct of research and the resolution of allegations of research misconduct.
  3. What is the ORI's definition of misconduct?
    Fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research. Does NOT include honest error or honest differences in interpretations or judgments of data.
  4. T/F Honest error is considered misconduct.
    FALSE
  5. What is fabrication?
    Making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
  6. What is making up data or results and recording or reporting them?
    Fabrication
  7. What is falsification?
    Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
  8. What is it called when research data is omitted from the research report?
    Falsification
  9. What is plagiarism?
    The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
  10. T/F If a researcher is found to have engaged in research misconduct, it may be required that they return federal funding.
    TRUE
  11. T/F If a researcher is found to have engaged in research misconduct, the institution may have their research temporarily halted.
    TRUE
  12. T/F The researcher has ownership rights over any previous studies they have conducted.
    FALSE - Immediate ownership rights to data belong to the research institution that received the grant (hospital or university).
  13. During World War II, the Nazi medical community was notorious for conducting "experiments" and "research" on prisoners, notably Jewish hostages. As a result, what resulted?
    The Nuremberg Code (1947) - states "the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
  14. T/F The fact that fear of failure was related to perfectionism is consistent with the assertion of some researchers that perfectionists typically are driven more by a fear of failure than by a need for achievement.
    TRUE!
  15. T/F Imagine the TWU SOT in Dallas creates a new and innovative approach to getting kids with autism to manage the sensory challenges of attending an art museum. If it is so successful that TWU wants to expand the program and use it as a model for other similar museums, would applying for a demonstration grant would be an appropriate action?
    TRUE
  16. Hours spent on another job is considered what type of conflict?
    Conflict of commitment tends to address issues such as hours spent on an outside job or other income generation which may prevent researchers from having their full energy and effort for their primary employment and in particular for discharging research obligations.
  17. T/F In the methods section of a research paper, for studies involving human participants, it is appropriate to state that ethical approval has been obtained.
    TRUE
  18. T/F Conference posters in venues such as the AOTA annual conference are exempt from peer review.
    FALSE! For conference presentations and posters, this review process focuses on the quality and suitability of submitted abstracts..and is typically undertaken by an expert panel/committee responsible for selection of the program content.
  19. T/F One of the main functions of disseminating research is to allow others to view it so they can criticize or replicate it.
    TRUE - Training and educational grants are used to support professionals and students to develop or extend their knowledge or skills.
  20. Which writing tool or strategy is particularly appropriate for visual learners?
    Mind mapping will not work for all writers and it probably works better for visual thinkers.
  21. T/F When listing author names for a manuscript, the order of authors in the byline follows significant (principle) author first, followed by remaining names in alphabetical order.
    False
  22. T/F Honest error or differences in interpretations or judgments of data are not considered Misconduct in Science.
    TRUE - Misconduct does not include honest error. Nor does it include honest differences in interpretations or judgments concerning research data.
  23. Which of the following is generally not a part of an abstract?
    A) Subjects/participants
    B) Implications for future practice
    C) Results
    D) Literature review
    D) Literature Review
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. T/F In the discussion section it is appropriate to consider the findings of the current research in light of the findings from previous studies AND examine the findings in relation to the study questions.
    TRUE
  25. T/F Given a choice between an oral presentation and a poster presentation, the oral presentation is more commonly selected for works currently in progress.
    FALSE - Poster sessions are also more likely to accept presentations of preliminary findings and research in process.
  26. T/F A literature review reports but does not evaluate relevant literature.
    FALSE - A good literature review informs, evaluates, and integrates relevant existing literature.
  27. T/F All scientific/professional journals utilize blind review.
    FALSE
  28. T/F Seed funding refers to the type of funding designed to help an investigator collect pilot data for a later grant application to be submitted elsewhere or to initiate a new line of research that is too novel to receive funding in a competitive environment outside of the university setting.
    TRUE
  29. What is seed funding?
    Seed funding refers to the type of funding designed to help an investigator collect pilot data for a later grant application to be submitted elsewhere or to initiate a new line of research that is too novel to receive funding in a competitive environment outside of the university setting.
  30. T/F If you have written an article for AJOT and signed papers conveying copyright to them, you are still able to publish portions of the article in other venues because you are the original author of the document.
    FALSE - On acceptance of the manuscript, authors are required to convey copyright ownership to AOTA. Manuscripts published in the journal are compyrighted by AOTA and may not be published eslsewhere without permission. Permission to reprint journal material for commercial or other purposes must be secured in writing from the director of AOTA's Publications Department.
  31. T/F It is considered a poor writing practice to "write for the journal", ie. write with a specific journal in mind from the outset of writing.
    FALSE - Academic and professional scholarly journals target different readerships, and so it is important to identify one or two suitable jorunals at an early stage. One, then writes so as to speak to the journal's readers.
  32. T/F The Office of Research Integrity is responsible for monitoring both the conduct of research and resolving allegations of research misconduct.
    TRUE
  33. T/F Consumers do not review scholarly articles.
    FALSE - Although less common than review by scientific/professional peers, consumer review is increasingly considered important and included for some dissemination venues. Consumer reviews offer the perspective of persons who participated in the study, of those for whom the research is intended.
  34. What is replication?
    Replication is an established research method. When research findings are replicated by others, the scientific community places more confidence in them.
  35. T/F It is acceptable to publish the same results more than once without clear acknowledgment of the prior presentation or publication.
    FALSE
  36. Who exposed individuals to unacceptably high levels of risk without regard for their pain and suffering?
    Nazi Doctors
  37. What was the Tuskegee Experiment?
    WWII, doctors used penicillin for syphilis, but the participants were not notified that they had the disease. American Public Health Service (PHS).
  38. What is the Nuremberg Code?
    Ten principles of ethical human subject research. Written during the Nazi Doctors' trials (conducted in Nuremberg, Germany).
  39. What are the three Principles of Belmont?
    • Respect for persons
    • Beneficence
    • Justice
  40. What four populations are considered vulnerable?
    • Pregnant women
    • Children
    • Fetuses
    • Prisoners
  41. What is the beneficence principle?
    Requires that human subjects research minimize risk to the greatest extent possible and maximizes the potential for benefits to be gained from the research. Risks must be reasonable and minimized.
  42. What does the justice principle entail?
    That all risks and benefits be imposed upon the same groups of people. Cannot take advantage of a vulnerable population (e.g. poor).
  43. T/F Consent is an ongoing process through a subject's participation in research.
    TRUE
  44. What are the four major types of grants?
    • Research grants
    • Demonstration grants
    • Training, educational, and professional development grants
    • Center grants
  45. What are the two major types of research grants?
    • Basic science studies
    • Applied science studies
  46. What type of studies aim to test the application of a particular theory to a practical life problem?
    Applied science studies - they often involve evaluating the effectiveness of the application of one or more technologies or intervention approaches.
  47. What is the aim of a demonstration grant?
    To allow investigators to develop, expand, and evaluate a specific set of healthcare services, a model program, or a particular methodological approach. Demonstration grants allow investigators to build on existing knowledge about the efficacy of a given approach to service or programming.

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