Neuro Unit 3 Language and the brain
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Language is typically divided into these 3 areas:
There are also subcortical regions for language. These are (2):
- Broca's area, Wernicke's area, angular gyrus
- Basal ganglia, thalamus
Broca's area (44&45) is primarily responsible for __ and __ speech.
Area 44 (2):
phonological processing, language production
The motor strip is responsible for:
Activation of muscles for articulation
The arcuate fasciculus is responsible for:
Transmission of linguistic information from posterior to anterior areas (Connects Wernicke's to Broca's)
Wernicke's area is responsible for (4):
Also for storage auditory and phonologic images of words and meanings
- Language comprehension
- Responding to spoken words/sounds (own), words spoken by someone else, producing speech
Angular gyrus is responsible for (3):
- Reading, writing, semantic processing
- Also: orthological & phonological decoding during reading, writing, and semantic processing
Receives sensory input and translates for coding speech
Expressive, or ____ aphasia
Telegraphic, or ____ speech
Damage to Broca's area, underlying ___, and __ __. Also damage to ___ and part of the ___ lobe.
Uses key words
No difficulty with pronouncing, but rather ___
Naming is ___ impaired
___ ___ because Broca's lies next to motor cortex
Comprehension ___, can understand simple __ and __ language
Difficulty understanding syntactically __ language
Problem with memory as well, because damage to ___
white matter, basal ganglia, premotor, frontal
- mildly-moderately impaired
- Right hemiplegia
- intact, spoken and written
- Damage ranges from complete muteness to slow speech of a few words
Receptive or __ aphasia
Difficulty with ___
Speech fluent and grammatical, but ___
Have frequent paraphasias or ___
Prosody is ___
Is there awareness of empty speech?
Is reading and writing intact?
- NO--comprehension deficits make him unaware
- NO; severe difficulty
Damage to ___ ___
Difficulty ___ words (hallmark)
Fluent, but with many ___
Naming is ___, there is difficulty reading __, reading comprehension is ___. Writing is ___ and will contain ___ as seen in spoken words.
- Arcuate fasciculus (also affects supra marginal gyrus)
- paraphasias (not as fluent as Wernicke's)
- impaired, aloud, intact
- poor, paraphasias (damage to supra marginal gyrus causes writing impairment)
2 kinds: sensory and motor, both have 2 things in common
1. Ability to repeat ___ language
2. Often occur with lesions to the ___ areas
___ areas are junctions between territories that are supplied by major arteries (MCA & ACA, MCA & PCA) (left carotid, middle carotid)
Transcortical motor aphasia
Lesion disconnects ___ from ___
difficulty __ and __ responses
Comprehension, reading, writing ____
Transcortical sensory aphasia
Disconnect from __ to ___
Difficulty ___, ___, & ___
- Broca's, supplementary motor
- initiating, organizing
- Wernicke's, posterior language areas
- comprehending, reading, writing
- intact (separates from Wernicke's)
___ or word-finding problems
Use elaborate ___, speech sounds are bizarre, all other aspects of language (reading, writing) are ____.
Damage to ___-___ areas
- Circumlocutions, intact
3rd most common; All aspects of language are severely impaired
Characteristics: Stereotypical responses that tend to be swear words
Damage to __ and ___
Difficulty with comprehension, speech production, can't read or write
Language disturbances following lesions in the __ __ and ___
lesion of the anterior BG results in sparse language output that is ___ and has impaired ___.
Lesion of the thalamus results in symptoms similar to ___ or transcortical ___ aphasia.
Basal ganglia, thalamus
Reading and writing disorders
Disorder in which the person cannot read, write, spell; Where is the damage?
Disorder in which person cannot read but can write; Where is the damage? What is cut off from the visual system? What can they do?
Alexia w/ agraphia; Angular gyrus or supramarginal gyrus
- Alexia w/o agraphia
- Left occipital lobe and posterior corpus callosum
- Angular and supramarginal gyrus (not receiving info that can use for reading)
- Derive meaning from words spelled aloud, spell correctly, copy written words and can understand them (read/understand own writing)
Right hemisphere damage
Cognitive-communication problems can include...
Difficulties with ___ components of speech (aprosodia). This affects (2):
Lesions to the anterior RH in the same location as Broca's will result in:
Lesions to the same area as Wernicke's in the RH will result in:
Understanding ___ (abstract language)
Appreciating humor and ___
- Affective; prosody and emotion
- Flat affect of own speech whether happy/sad
- Difficulty understanding other people's affective components of language
- Difficulty reasoning, cognition and attention impaired
What is it?
Speaking a heard word process
(Cochlea to brainstem to MGN of thalamus...)
Speaking a written word process
(LGN of thalamus...)
A simplistic model of explaining how we repeat words and produce written words
MGN-->primary/secondary auditory cortex for analyzing sound-->Wernicke's for comprehending spoken word-->Broca's for programming speech-->motor cortex for execution
LGN-->Primary/secondary visual cortices for analyzing--> angular gyrus for recognizing the word-->Wernicke's for comprehending-->Broca's for programming-->motor cortex for execution
Children with focal brain damage
May not show same relation between brain lesion and behavioral pattern seen in adults
(Children are more likely to have comprehension deficits in ___ hemisphere damage, and expressive deficits after damage to ___)
Most children with early unilateral brain injury achieve normal levels of language performance
(Suggests that there is less neuronal ___ early in life to compensate for damage)
RH can support language following LH damage in young children
(LHectomy in adults results in ___; LHectomy in child spares ___)
Right; Wernicke's (opposite of adults)
pruning to connections
global aphasia; language/speech
A distributed, parallel model of language
What does it say?
Language is processed by anatomically different areas and in parallel meaning....?
In naming the parts activated associated with each are...
While language is localized to some extent there are areas of the brain that perform the same function
Different parts of the brain act on the same information at the same time
- Inferior temporal lobe
- Inferior temporal lobe
- Parts of parietal/temporal/occipital
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