Neuro Unit 3 Language and the brain

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janessamarie
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251772
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Neuro Unit 3 Language and the brain
Updated:
2013-12-11 12:15:33
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aphasia language
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Neuro Unit 3: Overview of aphasias and language functions
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  1. Language is typically divided into these 3 areas:

    There are also subcortical regions for language. These are (2):
    • Broca's area, Wernicke's area, angular gyrus
    • Basal ganglia, thalamus
  2. Broca's area (44&45) is primarily responsible for __ and __ speech.

    Area 44 (2):

    Area 45:
    planning, organizing

    phonological processing, language production

    semantic processing
  3. The motor strip is responsible for:
    Activation of muscles for articulation
  4. The arcuate fasciculus is responsible for:
    Transmission of linguistic information from posterior to anterior areas (Connects Wernicke's to Broca's)
  5. Wernicke's area is responsible for (4):
    Also for storage auditory and phonologic images of words and meanings
    • Language comprehension
    • Responding to spoken words/sounds (own), words spoken by someone else, producing speech
  6. Angular gyrus is responsible for (3):
    • Reading, writing, semantic processing 
    • Also: orthological & phonological decoding during reading, writing, and semantic processing

    Receives sensory input and translates for coding speech
  7. Broca's aphasia
    Expressive, or ____ aphasia
    Telegraphic, or ____ speech
    Damage to Broca's area, underlying ___, and __ __. Also damage to ___ and part of the ___ lobe. 

    Characteristics

    Uses key words
    No difficulty with pronouncing, but rather ___
    ___ repetition
    Naming is ___ impaired
    ___ ___ because Broca's lies next to motor cortex
    Comprehension ___, can understand simple __ and __ language
    Difficulty understanding syntactically __ language
    Problem with memory as well, because damage to ___
    • non-fluent
    • non-grammatical

    white matter, basal ganglia, premotor, frontal

    • transitioning
    • Impaired 
    • mildly-moderately impaired
    • Right hemiplegia
    • intact, spoken and written
    • complex
    • hippocampus
    • Damage ranges from complete muteness to slow speech of a few words
  8. Wernicke's aphasia
    Receptive or __ aphasia
    Difficulty with ___
    Speech fluent and grammatical, but ___
    Have frequent paraphasias or ___
    Prosody is ___
    Is there awareness of empty speech?
    Is reading and writing intact?
    • fluent
    • comprehension
    • empty
    • neologisms
    • normal
    • NO--comprehension deficits make him unaware
    • NO; severe difficulty
  9. Conduction aphasia
    Damage to ___ ___
    Difficulty ___ words (hallmark)
    Fluent, but with many ___
    __ comprehension
    Naming is ___, there is difficulty reading __, reading comprehension is ___. Writing is ___ and will contain ___ as seen in spoken words.
    • Arcuate fasciculus (also affects supra marginal gyrus) 
    • Repeating
    • paraphasias (not as fluent as Wernicke's)
    • Good
    • impaired, aloud, intact
    • poor, paraphasias (damage to supra marginal gyrus causes writing impairment)
  10. Transcortical aphasia
    2 kinds: sensory and motor, both have 2 things in common
    1. Ability to repeat ___ language
    2. Often occur with lesions to the ___ areas
    ___ areas are junctions between territories that are supplied by major arteries (MCA & ACA, MCA & PCA) (left carotid, middle carotid)
    • spoken
    • watershed
  11. Transcortical motor aphasia
    Lesion disconnects ___ from ___
    ___ aphasia
    difficulty __ and __ responses 
    Comprehension, reading, writing ____

    Transcortical sensory aphasia
    Disconnect from __ to ___
    ___ aphasia
    Difficulty ___, ___, & ___
    Repetition ___
    • Broca's, supplementary motor
    • Nonfluent
    • initiating, organizing
    • intact

    • Wernicke's, posterior language areas
    • Fluent
    • comprehending, reading, writing
    • intact (separates from Wernicke's)
  12. Anomic aphasia
    ___ or word-finding problems

    Characteristics:
    Use elaborate ___, speech sounds are bizarre, all other aspects of language (reading, writing) are ____.
    Damage to ___-___ areas
    Naming

    • Circumlocutions, intact
    • Temporal-parietal
  13. Global aphasia
    3rd most common; All aspects of language are severely impaired

    Characteristics: Stereotypical responses that tend to be swear words

    Damage to __ and ___
    Broca's, Wernicke's

    Difficulty with comprehension, speech production, can't read or write
  14. Subcortical aphasia
    Language disturbances following lesions in the __ __ and ___

    lesion of the anterior BG results in sparse language output that is ___ and has impaired ___.

    Lesion of the thalamus results in symptoms similar to ___ or transcortical ___ aphasia.
    Basal ganglia, thalamus

    nonfluent, articulation

    Wernicke's, sensory
  15. Reading and writing disorders
    Disorder in which the person cannot read, write, spell; Where is the damage?

    Disorder in which person cannot read but can write; Where is the damage? What is cut off from the visual system? What can they do?
    Alexia w/ agraphia; Angular gyrus or supramarginal gyrus

    • Alexia w/o agraphia
    • Left occipital lobe and posterior corpus callosum
    • Angular and supramarginal gyrus (not receiving info that can use for reading)
    • Derive meaning from words spelled aloud, spell correctly, copy written words and can understand them (read/understand own writing)
  16. Right hemisphere damage
    Cognitive-communication problems can include...
    Difficulties with ___ components of speech (aprosodia). This affects (2):
    Lesions to the anterior RH in the same location as Broca's will result in:
    Lesions to the same area as Wernicke's in the RH will result in:

    Understanding ___ (abstract language)
    Appreciating humor and ___
    Social judgment/____
    Other characteristics?
    • Affective; prosody and emotion
    • Flat affect of own speech whether happy/sad
    • Difficulty understanding other people's affective components of language
    • metaphors
    • sarcasm
    • pragmatics
    • Difficulty reasoning, cognition and attention impaired
  17. Wernicke-Geshwind Model
    What is it?

    Speaking a heard word  process
    (Cochlea to brainstem to MGN of thalamus...)

    Speaking a written word process
    (LGN of thalamus...)
    A simplistic model of explaining how we repeat words and produce written words 

    MGN-->primary/secondary auditory cortex for analyzing sound-->Wernicke's for comprehending spoken word-->Broca's for programming speech-->motor cortex for execution

    LGN-->Primary/secondary visual cortices for analyzing--> angular gyrus for recognizing the word-->Wernicke's for comprehending-->Broca's for programming-->motor cortex for execution
  18. Children with focal brain damage
    May not show same relation between brain lesion and behavioral pattern seen in adults
    (Children are more likely to have comprehension deficits in ___ hemisphere damage, and expressive deficits after damage to ___)

    Most children with early unilateral brain injury achieve normal levels of language performance
    (Suggests that there is less neuronal ___ early in life to compensate for damage)

    RH can support language following LH damage in young children
    (LHectomy in adults results in ___; LHectomy in child spares ___)
    Right; Wernicke's (opposite of adults)

    pruning to connections

    global aphasia; language/speech
  19. A distributed, parallel model of language
    What does it say?

    Language is processed by anatomically different areas and in parallel meaning....?

    In naming the parts activated associated with each are...
    Animals:
    Persons: 
    Tools:
    While language is localized to some extent there are areas of the brain that perform the same function

    Different parts of the brain act on the same information at the same time

    • Inferior temporal lobe
    • Inferior temporal lobe
    • Parts of parietal/temporal/occipital

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