Western Civ Final
Card Set Information
Western Civ Final
ww1 ww2 western europe history
Review for a Western Civilization class final
The Treaty of Tordesillas divided
the New World between Spain and Portugal
The Aztec empire, which Cortez conquered in 1519, was located
in central Mexico
The European nation that took over the spice trade from Portugal was
the Dutch Republic
The major rival to the British in India in the 17th century was
The inflation of the 16th century and early 17th century
caused a decline in the standard of living for wage earners and those on fixed incomes
Which of the following statements best applies to the economy of 19th and 17th century Europe?
The joint stock company enabled the raising of spectacular sums of capital for world trading venues
Gustavus Adolphus, who led the Lutheran armies in the 30 Years War until he was killed at Lutzen, was king of
Peter the Great's ambition was the make Russia more like
In 1592 and again in 1683, Vienna was seriously threatened by
the Ottoman Empire
James I of England alienated most of the members of Parliament by
insisting on his right to govern through Divine Right
The immediate reaction of the clerics to the theories of Copernicus was
condemnation, initially by Protestant leaders like Luther who condemned the discovery as contrary to their literal interpretation of the bible.
Following Copernicus's heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler used data to derive laws of planetary motion that confirmed Copernicus's heliocentric theory, but showed the orbits were eliptical
The first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by telescope was
The philosophy of Rene Descartes
stressed a separation of mind and matter
The American Revolution affected Europeans by
proving that the ideas of the Enlightenment could be realized politically
Napoleon met his final defeat at the Battle of
Catherine the Great of Russia
followed a successful policy of expansion against the Turks
European diplomacy during the 18th centruy was predicated on the idea that
in a balance of power, one state should not achieve dominance over the other
The scientist-philosopher who provides a link between the scientists of the 17th century and thew philosophes of the next was
Which war do some historians regard as the first world war
The Seven Years War
The most immediate cause of the French Revolution was
the government's failure to resolve its debts and other economic problems
Voltaire was best known for his criticism of
The dismemberment of Poland in the late 18th century
showed the necessity of a strong, centralized monarchy to defend a state in the period
The controversy over voting by order versus voting by head in the Estates-General saw
the Third Estate respond by forming a National Assembly
In the Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu argued that the best political system in a modern society is one where
power is divided between the three branches of government
Under Frederick II "the Great" of Prussia, the most important offices in the government usually went to
members of the nobility
The defeat of General Cornwallis and his army at Yorktown in 1781, leading to British abandonment of the Revolutionary War, was achieved by
a combined American and French army supported by a heavily armed French fleet
In 1871, William I was proclaimed Kaiser, or emperor, of the second Reich in
The revolution of 1848 in France ultimately resulted in
a new French empire under Louis Napoleon
Industrialization began on the continent first in
Belgium, France and Germany
In the US, right after the Civil War, what began to replace steam boats as a viable mode of transportation on many routes?
An overall result of the Crimean War was
the destruction of the Concert of Europe and the creation of opportunities for Italian and German national unification
The Industrial Revolution had its beginnings in
In 1848, the Frankfurt Assembly
failed to create a united Germany
In the Italian War of 1859, Piedmont was allied with
of the following allowed steam engines to be located away from the rivers?
They ran on coal
The foreign minister diplomat who dominated the Congress of Vienna was
Klemens von Metternich
James Watt was vital to the industrial revolution for his invention of
a rotary engine that could spin and weave cotton
Among Napoleon III's great domestic projects was
a reconstruction of Paris with broad boulevards, public squares, and municipal utilities
Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian-born leader of German unification,
in conducting domestic and foreign policy
The man long regarded as the George Washington of Latin America is
The Congress of Vienna
created policies that would maintain the European balance of power
Whose assassination contributed to the outbreak of WWI?
Germany's Schlieffen Plan included
all of the above
Which dictator did not come to power between WWI and WWII?
Who was the Red Army during the Russian Civil War?
Which of the following summed up the Bolshevik program?
all of the above
What is new imperialism?
The revival of imperialism after 1880 in which European nations established colonies in Asia and Africa
Who intervened and demanded that the Russians accept Austria's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and face war with Bosnia?
What rights did women gain following WWII?
The right to vote, own property, and work in new professions
Due to its strong democratic traditions, the last Eastern Europe country to fall under Soviet, on party domination after WWII was
The official reason for dropping atomic bombs on Japan was
to save the hundreds of thousands of American lives it was calculated that a U.S.-led invasion of Japan would cost
Demonstrating again that ever higher military technology was crucial to the conduct and outcome of WWII, the greatest tank battle of all time was fought at
Hitler's first act f aggression took place in 1963 when the Germans occupied what area?
The policy created in 1947 and used by the Americans against communism was called
To the British, appeasement meant
giving in to the demands of the dissatisfied to make them content
Following the second world war, Germany was
divided into four zones of occupation under U.S., British, French, and Russian administration
The Warsaw Pact did not include
After attacking Pearl Harbor, the main priority for the US was
defeating Germany first then turning its great naval war machine against Japan
The naval battle in the Pacific that was the turning point of the war and established U.S. Naval supremacy in the area was
The first area of conflict in the unfolding of the Cold War was
The event that immediately preceded and sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis was
the Bay of Pigs
Who became the new prime minister of GB in May 940?
The Cold War policy adopted in the mid-1950's by the Eisenhower admin. was
Following the allied evacuation at Dunkirk, France
soon surrendered and the Vichy government was set up as a German puppet state
The nation that experienced that greatest losses in WWII was
The Soviet union
The Nazi rule of Europe was most ruthless in
Eastern Europe because the Slavs were considered racially inferior
The Grand Alliance included all of the following countries except
special strike forces used in Eastern Europe that proceeded to round up and kill Jewish men, women, and children
Who was the first president after the collapse of the Soviet Union?
What idea was destroyed after WWII?
Belief in progress
What was Perestroika?
Restructure of economy and politics in Russia
Where was the first independence movement?
Who was the first country to break off?
What was the Brezhnev Doctrine?
Used as an excuse to invade Czechoslovakia
the reduction of tensions
Anti-Ballistic missile treaty
limited the number of anti-ballistic missiles between Russia and US
the recognition of of post-WWII borders in central and eastern Europe