Anatomy & Physiology 2 Immune System & Respiratory Test

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Anatomy & Physiology 2 Immune System & Respiratory Test
2013-12-09 13:31:57
Anatomy physiology immune system respiratory

A list of cards made for an immune system and respiratory system test.
Show Answers:

  1. Lymph vessels, lymph organs, and lymph all make up what system in the body?
    The lymphatic system/immune system
  2. The lymphatic/immune system work with what other systems of the body?
    The cardio-vascular system and blood.
  3. All of the following are functions of the lymphatic system except: a. contains and transports lymph b. filters lymph c. phagocytosis d. inflammation e. transport blood f. immunity g. agglutination h. allergy
    The lymphatic/immune system does not transport blood.
  4. General defenses of the body vs. ALL or ANY disease are known as
    Nonspecific/Innate Defenses
  5. These are the first line defenses of the lymphatic/immune system.
    External defenses
  6. All of the following are external/1st line defenses EXCEPT: a. skin b. mucous membranes c. lysozymes d. stomach acids e. digestive enzymes f. NK cells g. gut microbes h. vaginal acids i. urinary tract acids j. intestinal alkalinity k. antibiotics
    f. NK cells (They are internal/2nd line defenses)
  7. These are the 2nd line defenses of the body.
    Internal defenses
  8. The following are all 2nd line defenses/internal defenses EXCEPT: a. complement fixation b. fever c. interferons d. antibiotics e. natural killer cells/N-K cells f. inflammation reaction/Rx
  9. Opsonization is a process that occurs in which internal defense/2nd line defense?
    Complement fixation
  10. This is the process of coating a microbe & attracting phagocytes to eat it.
  11. What is the right sequence of opsonization? a. chemotaxis complex, membrane attack complex, coating complex b. coating complex, chemotaxis complex, membrane attack complex c. membrane attack complex, coating complex, chemotaxis complex
    b. coating complex, chemotaxis complex, membrane attack complex
  12. These are wandering macrophages, fixed histiocytes, dendritic cells/langherhans cells, monocytes, and B lymphocytes. a. Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) b. N-K cells c. TCells
    Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)
  13. _____ sets the hypothalamic (brain) thermstat higher, causing _____
    interleukin-1; fever
  14. This speeds up body metabolism to fight disease
  15. Most leukocytes, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes are under the category of
  16. These are large lymphocytes with granules. No specificity. No memory. They search for any cancer, tumor, or virus infected cells and killed them by cell-to-cell contact/touch kill. a. APCs b. neutrophils c. Tc Cells d. Natural Killer/N-K cells
    d. Natural Killer/N-K cells
  17. Vasodilation, Pus formation, fibrin clot formation, and wound healing are all steps of what internal/2nd line defense? a. complement fixation b. inflammation c. N-K cells d. Fever
    b. Inflammation
  18. Which of the following is the correct sequence of inflammation reaction/Rx? a. pus formation, migration, vasodilation, wound healing b. wound healing, pus formation, vasodilation, migration c. vasodilation, migration, pus formation, wound healing d. migration, wound healing, pus formation, vasodilation
    c. vasodilation, migration, pus formation, wound healing
  19. These are the 3rd line of defenses. It is the immune response. It is helped by nonspecific defenses, especially the internal ones.
    Specific/Adaptive Defenses
  20. This is the molecule on the surface of the invading cell, particle, toxins, or secretions.
  21. Immunogenicity and reactivity are both properties of what molecule?
  22. MHC 1 Proteins & MHC 2 Proteins are both types of what?
    Surface Markers
  23. Reactive, but NOT immunogenic. These are smaller molecules that must be combined with a larger carrier molecule or protein from the body to become complete.
    Haptens/Incomplete Ags
  24. These are blood & lymph proteins made by B lymphocytes/B cells. They react with, stun, or inactivate Ags which the body regards as foreign to itself. It neutralizes toxic macromolecules, agglutinates small microbe cells, or precipitates small soluble molecules. It complements, lyses, and then phagocytes eat them.
  25. Which of the following sets of antibody types are in order from most common to most rare? a. IgE, IgD, IgA, IgM, IgG b. IgE, IgA, IgG, IgD, IgM c. IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE d. IgD, IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE
    c. IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
  26. What are the types of T cells?
    TCells/Cytotoxic T Cells/Sensitized T Cells/Killer T Cells/TE Cells/ Effector T Cells/CD-8 Cells, TH Cells/Helper T Cells/CD-4 Cells, TCells/Supressor T Cells/Regulatory T Cells/Treg Cells/CD-4 Cells
  27. These cells use touch kill to kill invaders by binding to the Ags by their TCRs/T Cell Receptors and secret perforin enzymes and granzymes into large invader cells and host/body cells.
    TCells = Cytotoxic T Cells = Sensitized T Cells = Killer T Cells = TCells = Effector T Cells = CD-8 Cells
  28. These slow down and stop the B cell or T cell activity, as well as macrophage activity when the body wins. It helps the body tolerate self Ags/its own Ags. It works by direct contact or with lymphokine IL-10. It can be used in the future to slow down or stop autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection.
    • Tcells / Supressor T Cells / Regulatory T Cells / TReg cells / CD-4 cells
  29. These help B and T cells to fight diseases. When they contact Ags, APCs, they are stimulated by interleukins and enlarge and divide to become TH2 cells and TH1 Cells.
    TCells / Helper T Cells / CD-4 Cells
  30. These help attach & stabilize T cells when they contact other cells. These are 2 types: CD-4 Proteins (on helper T cells) and CD-8 Proteins (On killer T cells). a. TCells b. IgM c. Adhesion Proteins d. Haptens
    c. Adhesion Proteins
  31. Most are not immune cells, but help B cells and T Cells in their immune responses. Exist as wandering macrophages, fixed histiocytes, dendritic cells/Langherhans cells, monocytes, and B lymphocytes. a. Haptens b. Antigen c. Antibody d. Antigen Presenting Cells/APCs
    d. Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)
  32. True/False Cellular Immunity are B Cells. Antibody-mediated. Good vs. Small foreign invaders. Exogenous antigens
    False (This is Humoral Immunity)
  33. True/False Humoral Immunity are T Cells. Cell mediated. Good vs. large foreign invaders. Endogenous antigens.
    False (This is Cellular Immunity)
  34. True/False In the T Cell system, T cells are dependent of Ags or B Cells contact T cell independent Ags by themselves
    False (this is in B Cell System)
  35. True/False In the T Cell system, TCells become TH1 cells.
  36. True/False Primary response starts quickly. It is more potent or vigorous with high levels of Abs or Killer T cells made.
    False (Secondary Response)
  37. True/False 1o/Primary Response occurs with the first encounter of the antigen. It starts slowly. There are low levels of Abs or Killer T cells made.
  38. True/False The T cell system is slower starting, but lasts longer than B Cell System. It makes cells, not molecules.
  39. Naturally acquired active, naturally acquired passive, artificially acquired active, and artificially acquired passive are all types of
  40. True/False Active immunity last longer than passive immunity.
  41. True/False Tolerance is when the body's B and T cells dont recognize our own Ags as belonging to us, so they make Abs or Killer T cells against our own tissues.
    False (This is Autoimmunity)
  42. True/False Tolerance is when B & T Cells recognize our own Ags as belonging to us and do not recognize them as foreign or "non self".
  43. Stress, anticancer chemotherapy, and certain drugs can suppress the immune system.
  44. The surface receptors match those on WBCs in this African virus, which allows the virus to enter and multiply in macrophages and helper T cells. a. Rheumatic fever b. Graves' disease c. Type 1 Diabetes d. AIDS e. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    d. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome = AIDS
  45. True/False Altered immune responses to an ordinarily harmless substance is hypersensitivity.
    True (Allergy = Hypersensitivity)
  46. True/False 1o Responses are sensitization, first symptoms, and are mild; 2o Responses are strong allergic symptoms
  47. (Immediate/Delayed) Hypersensitivity occurs 1-3 days after exposure. Occurs in the T cell system. It is cell mediated. Cellular immunity.
  48. (Immediate/Subacute) Hypersensitivty occurs from 1-3 hours to 10-15 hours after exposure. B Cell system. Ab mediated. Humoral immunity.
  49. (Primary/Immediate) Hypersensitivity occurs minutes - hours after exposure. B cell system. Ab mediated. Humoral immunity.
  50. (Delayed/Subacute) Hypersensity contain type 2/cell surface Rx and type 3/immune complex Rx responses.
  51. (Immediate/Delayed) Hypersensitivity contains type 4 responses/delayed Rx.
  52. (Type 1/Type 4) is the main type. Erythema & edema localized all over body. Seconds - less than a half hour.
    Type 1
  53. The allergens are fungal, foreign tissue cell Antigens in a (Type 3/Type 4) response.
    Type 4
  54. The allergens are ordinarily harmless in a (Type 1/Type 2) allergic response.
    Type 1
  55. (Intrapulmonary pressure = Ppul/Intrapleural Pressure = Pip) is air pressure in the pleural cavities, while (Ppul/Pip) pressure is pressure inside the alveoli.
    Intrapleural pressure = Pip; Intrapulmonary Pressure = Ppul
  56. (Alveoli/Pleural) Fluid prevents accumulation in lymphatics.
    Pleural Fluid
  57. P1V= P2V2. The pressure of gas varies inversely with its volume in: a. Boyle's law b. Henry's law c. Dalton's law
    a. Boyle's law
  58. In (quiet inspiration/quiet expiration), the diaphragm and external intercostals are used.
    Quiet inspiration
  59. What of the following is the correct order of quiet respiration events: a. lungs stretch, gas flows down pressure gradient, inspiratory muscles contract b. inspiratory muscles contract, gas flows down gradient, lungs stretch c. inspiratory muscles contract, lungs stretch, gases flow down its pressure gradient
    c. inspiratory muscles contract, lungs stretch, and gases flow down its pressure gradient
  60. In (Quiet  inspiration/Forced expiration), the neck, chest, and back muscles further expand the thorax.
    Deep = Forced Expiration
  61. True/False Tidal volume is the maximum amount of air in the lungs after a maximum inhalation, while Total Lung capacity is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled per breath.
    False (Switched)
  62. True/False IRV is the amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal inhalation and ERV is the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exhalation
    True (IRV = inspiratory reserve volume; ERV = expiratory reserve volume)
  63. True/False EC is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after normal inhalation, while IC is the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal exhalation.
    True (EC = expiratory capacity; IC = inspiratory capacity)
  64. True/False RV is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal exhalation, while FRC is the amount of air remaining after a forced exhalation.
    False (Switched; RV = Residual Volume, FRC = Functional Residual Capacity)
  65. True/False Anatomical Dead space - alveolar dead space = Total Dead space
    False (Anatomical Dead Space + Alveolar Dead Space = Total Dead Space)
  66. True/False A spirometry is a device used to distinguish breathing disorders.
  67. True/False Law of Partial Pressures is the total pressure in a mix of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas in the mix.
  68. True/False Henry's Law states that in a mix of gases in contact with a liquid, each gas dissolves proportional to its PP (Partial Pressure) in the gas mix and the liquid.
  69. True/False Dalton's law states that the total pressure in a mix of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas in the mix.
  70. True/False External Respiration occurs in the tissue spaces, while internal respiration occurs in the alveoli
    False (Switched)
  71. True/False For there to be efficient gas exchange, there must be a close match between ventilation and perfusion.
  72. True/False 77% of Ois on hemoglobin in RBCS and 98.5% of CO2 is in paslma.
    • False (98.5 oxygen on hemoglobin & 77% of CO2 is in plasma)
  73. True/False 4 Hemes are protein tails and 4 globins are lipid heads with Fe in each in Hemoglobin molecules.
    False (Switched)
  74. True/False Hypoxia occurs due to no or inadequate delivery of oxygen to the tissues.
  75. True/False the Bohr Effect states increase in Blood H+ concentration = acidosis & increase Pco2 decreases hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen. The Haldane effect states low Po2 and lesser O2 saturation of hemoglobin allows more CO2 to be carried in the blood.
  76. True/False Rapid, deep breathing = hyperventilation causes CO2 buildup that makes the blood more acid and hypoventilation causes the blood to become more alkaline.
    False (Switched)
  77. (VRG/DRG) controls the regular inhalations and exhalations.
    VRG = ventral respiratory group
  78. (VRG/DRG) integrates distension or emptiness of the lungs from the stretch repectors
    DRG = doral respiratory group
  79. (Apneustic Center/Pneumotaxic Center) makes inspirations to become prolonged.
    Apneustic Center (Prolonged inspirations = apneustic breathing)
  80. (Cerebral Cortex/Hypothalamus) has voluntary control over breathing.
    Ceberal Cortex
  81. (Muscle & Joint Receptors/Stretch Receptors in Lungs) cause breathing to be slower and have less depth.
    Stretch Receptors in Lungs
  82. The Arterial Olevel is low in (Hypocapnia/Hypoxemia)
    Hypoxemia = Decreased O2
  83. (Hypocapnia/Hyperoxemia) results in low CO2 levels which results in a reduced rate of breathing.
    Hypocapnia = decreased CO2
  84. (Increased/Decreased) H+ results in acidosis and a low pH. Usually accompanies high COlevels.
  85. (Hypothalamic/Ceberal Cortical) Effects are from strong emotions, pain, subconscious relfexes or sensations.
    Hypothalamic effects
  86. (Pulmonary Irritant/Hering-Breuer) Reflex protects the lungs from overstretching and tearing.
    Hering-Breuer = inflation reflex.
  87. True/False Exchange of gases between the body and its environment (respiration) can occur in 3 different locations.
    True (External, Internal, & Intracellular)
  88. Inspiration = inhalation and expiration = exhalation are both parts of what bodily action?
    Breathing = Ventilation
  89. True/False Vascular Plexuses in the nose cool air. Nosebleeds from these occur easily.
    False (Warms air)
  90. True/False internal nares are openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharyn
    True (Internal Nares = Choane = Posterior Nasal Apertures)
  91. True/False The pharynx is a funnel shaped passageway from the nasal cavities and mouth to esophagus.
  92. True/False The Oropharynx connects the nose to the throat and the nasopharynx is posterior to the mouth.
    False (opposite)
  93. True/False The Trachea is the voice box or adam's apple, while the larynx is the windpipe.
    False (opposite)
  94. True/False the epiglottis is an elastic cartilage flap or partition that acts as a trapdoor.
  95. True/False The mucosa are local folds that prevent air passage.
    False (Valsalva's Maneuver = Sphincter)
  96. (Bronchi/Bronchioles) are several subdivisions of small tubes made up of mostly smooth muscle with no cartilage.
  97. Conducting/Respiratory Passages are the external nares that go to terminal bronchioles. No gas exchange with the blood.
    Conducting. Repisatory passages conduct air and allow gas exchange with the blood. occurs in the respiratory bronchioles to the alveoli
  98. (Type 1/Type 2) are scattered cuboidal cells that secret surfactant in the alveolar membrane.
    Type 2
  99. Alveolar Macrophages/Alveolar Pores alternate bypass routes to equalize air and pressure if some bronchi or bronchioles are collapsed or blocked.
    Alveolar pores
  100. The left/right lung is larger with 3 lobes and 2 fissures.
    Right lung (left is smaller with cardiac notch)
  101. Parietal/Visceral Pleura line the outside surfaces of the lungs.