ANTY101 ANTY101B University Montana Intro Latin American Studies
Terms and Ideas listed on the Exam 2 Study Guide by Maria Bustos
Santiago De Chile
Capital of Chile consisting of a number of different cities, founded in 1541
Chilean Doctor and politician. First Socialist to become president 1970
General Augusto Pinochet
Army General and dictator of Chile from 1973 until a democratically was elected president in 1990. Assumed power in a coup d'etat on sept 11 1973
September 11, 1973
Day Pinochet assumed power due to a Coup d'etat supported by the US CIA.
March of the Empty Pots
Under Pinochets regime, women marched in protest for the lack of food under his socialst presidency.
Emphasizes democratic principles of a Marxist society.
Chilean Secret Police, accused of extreme interrogation and torture of political prisoners during the Pinochet Regime
Plebiscite of 1988 (Chile)
National referendum Oct 5, 1988 to determine whether defacto leader Pinochet should extend his rule for another eight years. "NO" won w/ 56% ending his 17 yr reign.
Elected president of Chile recently and probably again
Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner
Current President of Argentina, two terms, husband president before her.
President of Brazil
President of Nicaragua and restablishing positive relations w/ the US after 1989-1990.
Theology of Liberation / Liberation Theory
Don't have to wait to be liberated in heaven, humans can liberate themselves here on earth.
Christian Base Communities
An autonomous religious groups often associated w/ the Liberation Theology. Organized often illiterate peasants into self-reliant worshiping communities.
Fray Bartolome de Las Casas
16th Century Spanish Friar. Advocate of rights for the indigenous population of Latin America. Still well remembered to this day.
Vatican II '62 - '65
Addressed the relations between the Catholic Church and the Modern world.
Gustavo Gutierrez (Columbia)
Peruvian theologian and regarded as founder of the Liberation Theology.
CELAM (Conference of Latin American Bishops)
council of the Catholic bishops of Latin America created in 1955. Pushed the Second Vatican Council toward a more progressive stance.
Leonardo Boff (Brazil)
Brazilian theologian and write, known for his active support for the rights of the poor and excluded. One of the best supporters of the Liberation Theology.
Members of the FSLN. named after Sandino who led the Nicaraguan resistance against the US occupation of Nicaragua in the '30s.
Somoza dictatorship family that led Nicaragua from '36 to '79 that was overthrown by an insurrection led by the FSLN.
July 19, 1979 (Nicaragua)
The Sandinista revolution to overthrow the Somoza family dynasty.
Overthrew the Somoza family dynasty in Nicaragua on July 19th, 1979. FSLN
Ernesto Cardenal (Nicaragua)
Nicaraguan Catholic Priest and Politician. Supporter of the Liberation Theology, and member of the Sandinistas.
Nicaraguan Politician who has been president since 2007, and previously from '79 to '90. Leader in the FSLN.
Umbanda vs. Candomble
Umbanda: Brazilian religion that blends african religions w/ catholicism along with indigenous lore and other religions.
Candomble: African originated religion practiced mainly in Brazil.
Hay-Buneau Barilla Treaty
signed on Nov. 1903 by the US and Panama that established the Panama Canal Zone and the construction.
The Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere w/ states in the North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression.
Big Stick Democracy
Refers to Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "Speak softly, and carry a big stick"
addition to the Monroe Doctorine stating that the US will intervene in conflicts between European countries and the Latin American countries, so long as LA countries conduct themselves appropriately.
The Good Neighbor Policy
Policy of the US (Roosevelt) toward the countries of LA. Non intervention and non interference in the domestic affairs of LA. Reinforced the idea of US being a "Good neighbor" and engage in exchanges with LA.
Comander of Panamanian and National Guard and dictator of Panama from 1968 to '81. Supported by the US b/c he opposed communism.
Military Dictator of Panama from 1983 to '89. In the '89 invasion from the US he was removed from power, and flown to the US as a POW.
"La Violencia" Columbia
Ten-year (48-'58) period of civil war in Colombia between the conservative party and the liberal party.'48 murder of Gaitan initiated riots and killed about 5k people.
People's Army - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia.
Marxist terrorist organization involved in the continuing armed conflict since '64. Say they represent the poor.
Colombia refused to participate in extradition, thus providing a safe-haven for those wanted by the US.
Drug Lord and elusive cocaine trafficker. Colombia refuse to extradite him on US charges.
To murder a prominent person by surprise attack.
Refers to US legislation aimed at curbing drug smuggling and combating supporting different activities in Colombia.
Militarized force that has a function and organization similar to profession military but is not part of the states formal military. Prominent in Colombia
1910 - led by Madero against Diaz and lasted nearly a decade. Resulted in the Mexican Constitution of 1917.
1953-59: revolt by Fidel Castro and allies against the government of Batista. Led to a revolutionary socialist state, and later reformed along communist lines.
Opposition to Somoza dictatorship in the 60s and 70's led by FSLN to violenty oust the dictatorship in '79. Led to a following war between FSLN and the Contras.
Area of communal land used for agriculture. Community members individually possess and farm a specific parcel.
President of Mexico from 1934-40. Held great power even after his presidency. Very agains the Catholic church.
Cuban communist revolutionary and was leader from 1959-2008. Led the revolution as a socialist but then converted to Communism.
Bay of Pigs
Unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA. Counter revolutionary military trained and funded by the US to overthrow Castro. 1961
14 day confrontation in Oct 1962 between the Soviet Union and Cuba against the US. Soviets placed missiles in Cuba in response to US placing missiles in Turkey.
Alliance for Progress
Initiated by Kennedy in '61 aimed to establish economic cooperation between the US and LA.
National Guard in Nicaragua
Militia created during the occupation by the US from 1909-'33 Notorious for human rights abuses and corruption under the regime of the Somoza family.
various rebel groups opposing the Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction. active from '79 through early '90s. Received financial and military support from the US.
Nicaraguan leader. Became president in 1990 after Ortega.
Civil War in El Salvador
1979-992 conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the National Liberation Front. Characterized by extreme violence.
Bishop of the Catholic Church in El Salvador. Assassinated March 1980. Aligned himself with progressive beliefs.
Peace Accord 1992
Peace to El Salvador in 1992 after more than a decade of Civil Ward. Negotiated by the representatives of the Salvadoran Government and the rebel group FMLN.
Army of National Liberation. Revolutionary Leftist group based in Chiapas. Declared war against the Mexican state, made up mostly of rural indigenous people.
Main Ideologist of the Zapatistas. Protests what he saw as the Mexican federal governments mistreatment of the nations indigenous people.