immune response

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doncheto
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251808
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immune response
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2013-12-08 20:30:30
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immune
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  1. What are the functions of the immune system?
    • •Protects from pathogens and
    • foreign molecules

    –Parasites

    –Bacteria

    –Viruses

    •Removes dead or damaged cells

    • •Attempts to recognize and remove
    • abnormal cells
  2. Of the various types of infectious agents or
    pathogens, which two are the most common?
    The most common pathogens are bacteria and viruses.
  3. What are the characteristics of bacteria and
    viruses? What are some differences between them?
  4. What is the first line of defense? Know the
    specific examples. How do they defend the body against pathogens
    nonspecifically?
    • First
    • line of defense prevents penetration

     

    • Skin with keratin

    • • Mucous membrane with
    • mucus and cilia

    • Nasal hair

    • • Secretions such as
    • sweat, oils, tears, saliva and acid

    • • Sweat, tears, and
    • saliva contain lysozymes, an enzyme that
    • hydrolyzes peptidoglycan of bacterial cell
    • wall
  5. Which organs/structures make up the lymphatic
    system?
  6. What are the five types of white blood cells (aka
    leukocytes)?
  7. diapedesis
    • Leukocytes leave the circulatory system and enter the
    • extracellular spaces (diapedesis
  8. chemokines
    • Particular chemicals called chemokines
    • can stimulate this infiltration.
  9. chemotaxis
  10. What are Toll-like receptors and
    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns? On which cells do you find them?
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on leukocytes bind to PAMPs. TLRs dimerize after binding and stimulate destruction of the microbe

    • Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are molecules shared by many microbes but not
    • found on mammalian cells (E.g. peptidoglycan, LPS or 
    • lipopolysaccharide)
  11. Which two leukocytes are phagocytic?
    Second line of defense: phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages
  12. What is the second line of defense? How do
    phagocytes, natural killer cells, interferons, complement proteins, and
    the inflammatory response defend the body?
  13. What are the four signs of an inflammatory
    response? Which chemicals mediate this response and how do they lead to the
    manifestation of the four signs?
    • Four signs: redness, swelling, heat, pain
  14. What does it mean that the third line of defense
    is “specific”?
    • Third line of defense:
    • Specific
    • immune response
    • Has memory
    • Involve two kinds of lymphocytes – B and T cells
    • Include humoral
    • and cell-mediated immunity
  15. In what three ways do T cells and B cells differ?
    • B
    • lymphocytes / B cells

    • Originate and mature in the bone marrow

    • • Mediate humoral immunity against
    • free bacteria, toxin, viruses in body fluids, transfused blood cells, or
    • allergens

    • Produce antibodies

    • T
    • lymphocytes / T cells

    • Originate in the bone marrow but mature in the thymus

    • • Produce cell-mediated
    • immunity against
    • pathogens that have already entered body cells (infected cells), cancerous
    • cells, and transplanted tissue

    • • Have T
    • cell receptors (TCR) on cell membrane
  16. What are the primary targets of humoral immunity?
    Of cell-mediated immunity?
    • • Mediate humoral immunity against
    • free bacteria, toxin, viruses in body fluids, transfused blood cells, or
    • allergens

    • Produce cell-mediated
    • immunity against
    • pathogens that have already entered body cells (infected cells), cancerous
    • cells, and transplanted tissue
  17. Know the meaning of antigen and epitope.
    • antigenic
    • determinants)
  18. What are the functions of antibodies?
    They target antigens
  19. What does opsonization mean? What two types of proteins can act as opsonins (one is part of 2nd line and the
    other is part of 3rd line of defense)?
    process whereby opsonins make an invading microorganism more susceptible to phagocytosis

    • Complements
    • are serum proteins that
    • - cause invading cells or infected
    • cells to lyse
    • by forming membrane attack
    • complex
    • - act as opsonins
    •  mediate inflammation

    antigens
  20. How many types of T cell receptor can each T cell produce? How many types of epitopes can each T cell receptor recognize and
    bind?
    one. one
  21. How many types of antibody can each B cell
    produce? How many types of epitopes can each antibody recognize and bind?
    • Each B cell produces a single type of antibody.
    • Each antibody recognizes only one type of antigen or one epitope.
  22. What happens when a B or T lymphocyte is clonally selected? Which two populations of cells arise?
    • Clonal selection activates a specific B or T cell clone when its antigen shows up.
    • Effector TH cells:
    • secrete cytokines to stimulate macrophages, B cells, and TC
    • cells
    • - Memory TH cells:
    • wait for reactivation in future encounters
  23. What are plasma cells?
    • Plasma cells are effector
    • B cells that can produce and secrete large quantities of antibodies.
  24. What makes the production of a large repertoire
    of B cells (each clone with a unique B cell receptor) possible?
    Most B Cells require help from a T Helper cell before clonal expansion can happen.
  25. What are primary and secondary immune responses?
    • Primary immune response is when the antigen is first introduced. Theres is some antibodies.
    • Secondary is when there are memory cells and antigens are created much faster and more.
  26. Which molecules act as “self-markers” or identify the cells as self?
    • Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules act as “self
    • markers”. There are a large number of alleles in the population.
  27. What are the functions of MHC class I and class
    II molecules? On which cells do you find each? With which type of T cell
    does each interact and how?
    • Class
    • I MHC


    • - Found on almost all nucleated
    • cells.

    • - Present intracellular antigens and
    • cellular molecules

    • - Cytotoxic
    • T cells bind to MHC I via their T cell receptor and CD8

    • Class
    • II MHC

    • - Found on Antigen Presenting
    • Cells

    • - Present fragments of digested
    • foreign antigens

    • - T Helper cells bind to MHC II via
    • their T cell receptor and CD4
  28. Which cells are antigen presenting cells?
    Include dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells.

    • APCs internalize and digest foreign pathogens
    • and  present processed antigen fragments
    • on MHC II at the cell surface.
  29. What is antigen presentation?
    • internalize and digest
    • foreign pathogens and  present processed
    • antigen fragments on MHC II at the cell surface.
  30. How do T Helper cells get activated? What happens after they are activated? What are cytokines?
    MHC II with foreign antigen binds to a TCR and CD4 on a TH cell. This binding activates TH cell.

    • Each TCR is specific for a particular antigen and
    • self-MHC II.

    After binding, the APC releases cytokines such as  Interleukin-1 to further activate TH cell.

    • The activated TH
    • cell is now ready to differentiate.

    • Cytokines
    • are proteins secreted
    • by one cell and
    • affect the function
    • of another cell
    • (immune related).
  31. How do Cytotoxic T cells get activated? What
    happens after they are activated? What are perforins and granzymes?
    • TC TCR
    • and CD8 bind to a particular antigen presented on self-MHC I.

    • TC
    • cells are also stimulated by cytokines from TH
    • cells.

    • Activated
    • TC cells clonal expand and give rise
    • to
    • - Effector TC cells:
    • destroy bound foreign or abnormal cells by releasing perforins (pore forming proteins that lead to cell lysis) and granzymes (proteolytic enzyme that initiate
    • apoptosis)
    • - Memory TC cells:
    • wait for reactivation in future encounters
  32. How do T Helper cells “help” with both humoral
    and cell-mediated immune response?
    • Activated
    • TH cells clonal expand and give rise
    • to
    • - Effector TH cells:
    • secrete cytokines to stimulate macrophages, B cells, and TC
    • cells
    • - Memory TH cells:
    • wait for reactivation in future encounters
  33. In which ways can a person acquire immunity? Know
    the examples of natural, artificial, active, and passive immunity.
  34. How do allergies develop? Know the roles of allergen,
    sensitization, activation of B cells and T Helper cells, IgE, mast cells,
    degranulation, histamine, and inflammatory response.

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