Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics 1

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Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics 1
2013-12-09 19:43:10
Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics

Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics 1
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  1. On a mg/kg basis are pediatric doses larger or smaller?
  2. The Volume of distribution are larger or smaller per kg in pediatrics?
  3. Total body water/fat ratio is different in what way for pediatrics?
    Larger total body water and fat stores
  4. Are pediatric patients dosed less or more frequently?
    Usually more, less for pre-mes
  5. What age group of pediatrics gets the highest dose most frequently?
  6. What age group are “super metabolizers”?
  7. What is antenatal?
    Before birth
  8. What is Perinatal?
    12th week of gestation to the 28th day of life after birth
  9. What is a Pediatric?
    <18 years
  10. What is a Neonate?
    Within first month of life
  11. What is an infant?
    1-17 months
  12. What is a Toddler?
    18 mo – 3 years
  13. What is a Preschooler?
    3-5 years
  14. What is a Child?
    6-12 years
  15. What is an Adolescent?
    13-18 years
  16. What is a young adult?
    18-24 years
  17. What is a premature baby?
    < or = to 37 weeks gestation
  18. What is a full term baby?
    38-42 weeks gestational age
  19. What is a Post-term baby?
    > or = 42 weeks of gestation
  20. How do children’s stomach acid differ from adults?
    Elevated Gastric pH due to immature Parietal cells
  21. What is the biggest issue with IM injections in pediatric patients?
  22. Enteral absorption is often reliable or unreliable?
  23. If a baby is born by C-section, what will be their gut pH?
    Greater than normal, which is 5-6
  24. Why is absorption in the intestine more reliable than in the stomach in pediatrics?
    Because of the immature parietal cells in pediatrics
  25. What type of drugs do pediatrics not absorb as well due to their higher stomach pH?
    Acidic drugs like Phenytoin, Phenobarbitol, APAP and riboflavin
  26. What type of drugs are absorbed better in pediatrics due to higher stomach pH?
    Acid labile drugs like antibiotics
  27. Why might pediatrics not need as large of a dose of antibiotics as you would think?
    Because many antibiotics are acid labile and so are better absorbed in their elevated gastric pH
  28. Do pediatrics absorb fat well?
  29. Will fat be in the intestines longer or shorter times in pediatrics?
  30. Neonates have an increased capacity of what enzymes in the gut?
    B-glucoronidase and UDP-glucorinyl transferase
  31. Describe the difference in pediatrics in terms of Bile and pancreatic enzymes?
    Immature, not as prolific
  32. How are pediatrics different in terms of bacterial flora of the gut?
    Dependent on diet
  33. Why do babies get a Vitamin K shot at birth?
    Because they could bleed out otherwise
  34. What has a high impact of gastric flora of pediatrics?
    Breast or Bottle fed
  35. What things can increased gastric emptying rate in pediatrics?
    Feeding Human milk, Hypocaloric feeding
  36. What things can decrease gastric emptying in Pediatrics?
    Prematurity, GI reflux, Respiratory distress, congenital heart disease, Long chain fatty acids
  37. What effect does Osmolality and Posture have on gastric emptying rate of pediatrics?
  38. IM absorption is directly proportional to what?
    Blood flow, Surface area of drug deposited in the muscle, sick or hypothermic conditions
  39. Is IM or Enteral considered more reliable?
    IM if the infant is healthy