Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics 2

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kyleannkelsey
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251832
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Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics 2
Updated:
2013-12-09 19:43:40
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Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics
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Pharmacokinetics Pediatrics 2
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  1. Volume limits for pediatrics are set for what reason?
    Small muscle mass
  2. What is the most effective form of absorption for pediatrics?
    IV
  3. How is Topical absorption altered in pediatrics and why?
    Increased , thinner stratum corneum and increased total body water
  4. How does topical absorption change as an infant grows?
    Reduces are child grows
  5. Is rectal administration useful in pediatrics, why?
    Not recommended, variable absorption
  6. How thick is a baby’s skin in the first week of life?
    15 cell thick
  7. Why should you absorb lotions in early infancy?
    Skin is thin and absorbs too well
  8. Is a rectal or IM admin more variable?
    Both very variable, probably the rectal though
  9. What route of pediatric administration is the most desirable?
    Oral
  10. What route of pediatric administration is the most effective?
    IV
  11. What pediatrics should you be the most cautious about giving topical applications to?
    Infants, particularly preterm infants
  12. Vd is related to what factor in pediatrics?
    Age and total body water
  13. Total body water is lower or higher for pediatrics compared to adults?
    Higher
  14. Extracellular fluid volume is lower or higher for pediatrics compared to adults?
    Higher
  15. What is the TBWater for a preme?
    80%
  16. What is the TBWater for aNeonate?
    75%
  17. What is the TBWater for an infant?
    65%
  18. Aminoglycosides like gentamycin and tobramycin are water or lipid soluble?
    Water
  19. What happens to Vd of pediatrics with age?
    Decreases
  20. How would you dose aminoglycosides in infants compared to adults and why?
    Increased doses, because more TBW, so larger Vd
  21. Permeability of what membranes is increased in pediatrics?
    RBC and BBB, lungs/lungs too
  22. Do pediatrics absorb digoxin and anticonvulsants more or less?
    More
  23. What percent of preterm babies are fat?
    1-5%
  24. What percent of Neonates are fat?
    15-20%
  25. What percent of adults are fat?
    15%
  26. Albumin is higher or lower in preterm babies and infants than adults?
    Lower
  27. If a drug is highly protein bound, should you give a larger or smaller dose to a neonate?
    Smaller
  28. Diazepam is a lipophilic or aquaphilic drug?
    Lipophilic
  29. In both boys and girls fate increases or decreses from 5-10 years?
    Increases
  30. At what age does fat drop in boys?
    17
  31. Up to what age does fat increase in girls?
    13 (2x that of boys)
  32. % unbound drug is higher or lower in premature infants?
    Higher
  33. The binding affinity of circulating proteins is different in premature babies in what way?
    Decreases
  34. Babies have high or low billirubin?
    High
  35. How does Billirubin effect drug levels?
    Binds to Albumin, displacing protein bound drug OR Billirubin can be displaced and cause Kernicterus: developmental problems and seizures if it crosses BBB
  36. What effect it have on metabolism and excretion if more drug is available (unbound)?
    Increased
  37. Sulfa drugs are generally allowed or contraindicated in neonates, and why?
    Contraindicated due to billirubin binding
  38. Sulfadiazine is a sulfonamide, should it be given to a neonate?
    Generally considered safe, though sulfonamides are contraindicated

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