5. Contains DNA which controls cellular activities
6. Produces protein
7. Stores substances
8. Phospholipid bilayer that protects and encloses the cell and controls transport and maintains homeostasis
Cell (plasma) membrane
9. Rigid second layer that protects and encloses the cell
10. Fluid-like substances that contains various membrane bound structures (organelles) that perform various functions
11. Site of chemical reactions
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
12. Contains ribosomes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
13. Lipid production
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
14. Provides internal structure
15. Organism that exists as a singular, independent cell
16. Organism that exists as specialized groups of cells
17. Cells are organized into ____ that perform the same functions
18. Tissues form _____ which makes up an _____ _______
Organ; organ system
19. Has nuclear material in the center of the cell but is not enclosed by a nuclear membrane, it has no membrane bound organelles, it is found in bacteria and blue-green bacteria
20. Contains a clearly defined nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrane and membrane bound organelles it is found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists
21. The cell is the basic unit of life
All organisms are composed of cells
All cells come from pre-existing cells
22. True or false:
Each cell perform a specific function for each tissue or organ?
23. True or false:
As cells mature the do NOT shape and contents DON'T change
24. True or false:
As cells become specialized they may contain organelles that are NOT common to all cells.
25. True or false:
Design and shape of a cell is NOT dictated by its function and the conditions under which it works.
26. True or false:
Multicellular organisms exhibit greater cellular specialization, such as red blood cells, nerve cells, and gland cells.
27. What are examples of organelles that are NOT common to all cells?
Plastids, cell wall, vacuole, and centriole
28. Movement of substances across the plasma membrane without the use of the cell's energy (with the concentration gradient)
29. Movement of substances across the plasma membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
30. Diffusion of water across the plasma membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration
31. A carrier molecule embedded in the plasma membrane transports a substance across the plasma membrane following the high-to-low concentration gradient
Movement of substances across the plasma membrane that requires the use of the cell's energy and carrier molecules; substances are moving from an area of low concentration to an area of higher concentration (against the concentration gradient)
Large particles are brought into the cell
Large particles leave the cell
An internal equilibrium; the plasma membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell; a selectively permeable membrane only allows certain substances to pass through
When water moves in and as a result cells burst
Water moves out and as a result the cell shrivels
No net movement and as a result the cell maintains equilibrium
What requires the presence of oxygen, releases energy from the breakdown of glucose (or another organic compound) in the presence of oxygen, makes ATP with the energy released, and takes place in almost all living things?
What occurs in the absence of oxygen, breaks down food substances with production of a small amount of energy, is seen as an adaption for organisms that live in environments that lack oxygen and is also often called fermentation?
Does aerobic or anaerobic respiration produce the most energy?
Provides energy for bodily processes
Special proteins that regulate nearly every biochemical reaction in the cell
True or false:
Different reactions require different enzymes.
What are the three phases of the cell cycle?
Interphase, mitosis, and cytokineses
What is the longest phase in the cell cycle?
Any factor that can be controlled or changed in an experiment
What are the three types of variables scientific experiments?