Biology honors

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Biology honors
2013-12-09 08:00:09

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  1. author: me
    • tags: Midterms
    • description: 
    • fileName: Biology 
    • Card Count: 31
    • 1. Captures solar energy for photosynthesis 
    • Chloroplast 
  2. 2. Package/ distributes products 
    Golgi Body
  3. 3. Digests excess products and food particles 
  4. 4. Transforms energy through respiration 
  5. 5. Contains DNA which controls cellular activities 
  6. 6. Produces protein
  7. 7. Stores substances 
  8. 8. Phospholipid bilayer that protects and encloses the cell and controls transport and maintains homeostasis 
    Cell (plasma) membrane 
  9. 9. Rigid second layer that protects and encloses the cell 
    Cell wall
  10. 10. Fluid-like substances that contains various membrane bound structures (organelles) that perform various functions 
  11. 11. Site of chemical reactions
    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  12. 12. Contains ribosomes 
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  13. 13. Lipid production 
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  14. 14. Provides internal structure 
  15. 15. Organism that exists as a singular, independent cell 
  16. 16. Organism that exists as specialized groups of cells 
  17. 17. Cells are organized into ____ that perform the same functions 
  18. 18. Tissues form _____ which makes up an _____ _______
    Organ; organ system 
  19. 19. Has nuclear material in the center of the cell but is not enclosed by a nuclear membrane, it has no membrane bound organelles, it is found in bacteria and blue-green bacteria 
  20. 20. Contains a clearly defined nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrane and membrane bound organelles it is found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists 
  21. 21. The cell is the basic unit of life
    • All organisms are composed of cells
    • All cells come from pre-existing cells
    • Cell theory
  22. 22. True or false:
    • Each cell perform a specific function for each tissue or organ?
    • True
  23. 23. True or false:
    • As cells mature the do NOT shape and contents DON'T change
    • False 
  24. 24. True or false:
    • As cells become specialized they may contain organelles that are NOT common to all cells. 
    • True
  25. 25. True or false:
    • Design and shape of a cell is NOT dictated by its function and the conditions under which it works.
    • False
  26. 26. True or false:
    • Multicellular organisms exhibit greater cellular specialization, such as red blood cells, nerve cells, and gland cells.
    • True
  27. 27. What are examples of organelles that are NOT common to all cells?
    Plastids, cell wall, vacuole, and centriole
  28. 28. Movement of substances across the plasma membrane without the use of the cell's energy (with the concentration gradient)
    Passive transport 
  29. 29. Movement of substances across the plasma membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration 
  30. 30. Diffusion of water across the plasma membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration 
  31. 31. A carrier molecule embedded in the plasma membrane transports a substance across the plasma membrane following the high-to-low concentration gradient
    Facilitated transport
  32. Movement of substances across the plasma membrane that requires the use of the cell's energy and carrier molecules; substances are moving from an area of low concentration to an area of higher concentration (against the concentration gradient)
    Active transport
  33. Large particles are brought into the cell
  34. Large particles leave the cell
  35. An internal equilibrium; the plasma membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell; a selectively permeable membrane only allows certain substances to pass through
  36. When water moves in and as a result cells burst
  37. Water moves out and as a result the cell shrivels
  38. No net movement and as a result the cell maintains equilibrium
  39. What requires the presence of oxygen, releases energy from the breakdown of glucose (or another organic compound) in the presence of oxygen, makes ATP with the energy released, and takes place in almost all living things?
    Aerobic Respiration
  40. What occurs in the absence of oxygen, breaks down food substances with production of a small amount of energy, is seen as an adaption for organisms that live in environments that lack oxygen and is also often called fermentation?
    Anaerobic Respiration
  41. Does aerobic or anaerobic respiration produce the most energy?
  42. Provides energy for bodily processes
  43. Special proteins that regulate nearly every biochemical reaction in the cell
  44. True or false:
    Different reactions require different enzymes.
  45. What are the three phases of the cell cycle?
    Interphase, mitosis, and cytokineses
  46. What is the longest phase in the cell cycle?
  47. Any factor that can be controlled or changed in an experiment
  48. What are the three types of variables scientific experiments?
    Independent variable, dependent variable, controlled variable
  49. The one condition that you change in an experiment
    independent variable
  50. The variable that you measure or observe.
    dependent variable
  51. The variable that does not change during an experiment
    Contolled or Constant Variable
  52. _____ can lead to incorrect conclusions about what experiment showed.
  53. A flaw in the experiment design or the method of collecting or interpreting
  54. The steps of the scientific method are:
    • 1. Ask a question
    • 2. Do Background Research
    • 3. Consturct a hypothesis
    • 4. Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment
    • 5. Analyze your data and draw a conclusion
    • 6. Communicate your results
  55. Structure that contains pollen
  56. stalk that supports the anther
  57. sticky top surface of the pistil
  58. tube part of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary
  59. Part of the pistil that contains ovules and turns into fruit after fertilization
  60. Structures in the ovary that contain egg cell, develop into seeds once fertilized